REFLEXOLOGY

Its Origin, Concept and Technique

Indian Origin

Reflexology, which is also known by names like Zone Therapy, Shiatsu, Pointed Pressure Therapy, Contact Therapy, Concentrated Massage or Acupuncture without Needles, is probably the oldest system of natural treatment in the world, based on scientific technique of massage or pressure. How, when and where this system originated lacks consensus but on the basis of certain ancient documents, it is assumed that acupuncture and Reflexology, which work on a similar theory, were first conceived by Indian thinkers in primitive times. It was from here that the knowledge of these sciences disseminated to certain other countries through students, pilgrims and tourists. Research in Russia has endorsed this contention. On the basis of this research, it is said that the art and science of acupuncture originated in India, not in China, as is believed by most people in the world. This astounding revelation is made in the publication 'Indiskaya Meditsina Drevneruskom Vrachevaniyii' (Indian medicines in ancient Russian treatment of diseases) by N.A. Bogoyavlensky published in 1956 by the Gosudarstbennoye Izdatelstvo Meditsinkoi Literaturi (State Publishing House of Medical Literature), Leningrad Department. According to Bogoyavlensky, one of the prominent scholars of China of VIIth century, Heun Tsang spent many years in Nalanda University in India. On his return to his own country, he wrote a book in which he described in detail the teaching work done in Nalanda University, particularly in the medical science. Another prominent scholar from China, I. Tzin who visited India in 673 A.D., also studied in Nalanda University for many years. In his works, Tzin describes the customs of Indian people, their clothes, food and occupations. He calls India a 'Noble Province'. He also mentions that the Indians are imparting medical knowledge to the Chinese viz the complete art of treatment by pricking, now called acupuncture. He also confirmed the flourishing of various branches of medical science in India. Chinese translations of many Indian manuscripts on philosophy, astronomy, mathematics and medical science have been preserved in various libraries in China till date. From China, Indian writings on medicine also circulated to Tibet, and some other countries.

Bogoyavlensky's book also contains an interesting and revealing illustration which shows various points and areas in human body for purpose of curative cauterization and acupuncture. This illustration dates back to the first century A. D. and was procured from Eastern India. These early writings undoubtedly establish India's pioneering role in the field of Reflexology and acupuncture. Interestingly, reflexology historian Christine Issel has mentioned that certain traditional paintings of the feet of Hindu God Vishnu are covered in symbols coinciding with reflex points,which corroborate that Reflexology was widely practised in earlier times in India. Mr. Stanley Burroughs in his book 'Healing for the Age of Enlightenment' has tried to authenticate that this sort of medical treatment was known and practised in many parts of ancient India. On the basis of certain tomb drawings, which depict feet 3 being massaged in a particular position, Egyptians are also believed to be practising Reflexology like system in ancient times. It is said that new inventions leave behind many well-established systems, though temporarily. Truly, with the advent of certain new pathies, Reflexology and acupuncture received some setback but these systems could not be ignored altogether. Their abiding qualities again attracted the attention of men in medical profession as well as others. It was during the year 1582 that two distinguished European physicians, Dr. Adamus and Dr. A'tatis, brought out a book on Zone Therapy which gave eminence to this primitive system of treatment. Reflexology or reflexology or zone therapy, in fact, got scientific approach during the early years of twentieth century when an American doctor William H. Fitzgerald, M.D. (1872- 1942), a reputed medical physician and surgeon, who was the head of the Nose and Throat Department of the St. Francis Hospital in Hartford, Connecticut, developed the modern zone therapy. Dr. Edwin F. Bowers, M.D. and Dr. George Starr White are two other great physicians of this period who also did remarkable work in elaborating this unique theory of healing. Dr. Joe Shelby Riley and his wife Elizabeth Ann Riley were two other stalwarts who tried out this system on their vast number of patients and made unmatched contribution towards its development. Dr. Riley wrote twelve books on zone therapy, the first being copyrighted in 1917 and the last in 1942. Eunice D. Ingham, a member of New York State Society of Medical Masseurs, also did marvellous work in popularising this therapy by benefiting her numerous patients and by bringing out certain good books on reflexology including 'Stories The Feet Can Tell' and The Stories The Feet Have Told'.

From the early 1930s 4 until her death in 1974, Eunice D. Ingham worked zealously to make it a perfect branch of medical science. In their present form Reflexology and acupuncture are attributed to China where intensive research and significant work has been done to make these systems more effective and popular. During the historic visit of U.S. President, Richard M. Nixon and his wife Pat, to China in 1972, they showed deep interest in acupuncture which became instrumental in bringing greater attention to this pathy in the U.S.A. and in some other countries. In Denmark, reflexology is the most popular of all complementary therapies and about nine to ten per cent of the population of that country has tried this system to their satisfaction. Japan has taken a lead in developing and popularising a distinct type of pressure therapy called 'SHIATSU', which is also based on the principles of Reflexology. In Japanese language, the word 'SHI' means finger and 'ATSU' means pressure. Prof. Sir Park Jae Woo, a South Korean by birth, who has set up his academy in Moscow, gave Su Jok system of treatment to the world in the year 1986 which has its roots in Reflexology. In recent times, immense interest has been shown in reflexology by certain qualified health professionals in Europe, U.S.A., Canada, Germany and many other countries including India, the place of its origin. Stephanie Rick in his book 'The Reflexology Workout' has mentioned that in Europe nearly six thousand medical personnel combine reflexology as a part of their healing process these days. The number of such practitioners is increasing gradually. More and more people are now taking deep interest in this system. In view of its multifarious qualities, Reflexology has now become one of most 5 popular systems of natural treatment in many countries.

Reflexology and Acupuncture
Similarities and Dissimilarities

Reflexology and acupuncture are both ancient therapies. As mentioned earlier these systems were first conceived and practised by Indian physicians and from here these reached China and many other countries. In the present context, Chinese sages are credited for developing and widely practising these natural modes of treatment. Reflexology is an amalgamation of two Latin words, acus+ pressura. Acus means needle and pressura indicating pressure, thus, giving the impression that the treatment is through the pressure of needles. In practice, its method of treatment is not through needles but by pressing certain reflex points in hands, feet and other parts of the body, with thumbs, fingers or some gadgets especially prepared for this purpose. Acupuncture is also derived from two Latin words, acus+punctura. Acus means needle and punctura being puncture, thus, conveying the meaning - treatment by pricking needles. Human body is endowed with a number of spots called acupuncture points. These points when stimulated by needles activate body's energy and bring about the cure. The very purpose of both these pathies is to arouse immense invisible physical and mental energy in the body by pressing various reflex points or by pricking acupuncture points so as to restore health and to keep the body in perfect order. 6 Both these systems are based on holistic healing approach. 'Holistic' is a term derived from Greek word 'hobs', conveying the sense 'whole', aiming at treating the patient as a complete and undivided entity, incorporating three basic characteristics of an individual - the body, the mind and the spirit. When treated collectively, the results are really effective.

Reflexology
A System for All

Reflexology is a marvellous system, simple to understand and easy to practise. It is highly effective, completely safe and absolutely scientific. Whereas, acupuncture can only 3e carried out by a qualified and trained doctor, anybody, educated or illiterate, can benefit Tom Reflexology by understanding the theory of ten invisible zones in the body, location of various reflex points in hands, feet and other parts of the body and the technique of applying pressure on these points. The best thing being, Reflexology treatment can between to people of any sex and age - men, women, babies, children, young and old, anywhere and at any time. There is nothing to lose but much to gain from this therapy. It is due to these unique qualities of Reflexology that a large number of medical specialists, laving progressive and unbiased approach, speak highly of this therapy.

Zone Theory -The Pivot of Reflexology

The concept of zone therapy which is the basis of reflexology or Reflexology got new dimension and scientific 7 recognition when a distinguished American ENT specialist, Dr. William H. Fitzgerald undertook research during the early years of twentieth century to establish its practicality. His colleagues in the medical profession highly discouraged him but his continuous research and dedicated efforts brought to light the presence of en energy zones in the body. These zones are, in fact, the basis of reflexology and Reflexology. Zone therapy is very simple. According to it, there are ten invisible life force currents massing through the body from head to feet and hands, in line with all toes and fingers ending in the tips as shown in fig. 1. The specific area falling under each life force current s called a zone. There are five longitudinal zones on the right side of the body and five longitudinal zones on the left side of the body in equal proportions. All the ten zones un parallel over the entire body covering head, face, shoulders, arms, hands, chest, abdomen, reproductive organs, legs and feet.

Zone-1

Extends from top of the head to big toes in feet passing through the mid of forehead, lose, palate, lips, chin, chest, spine, abdomen and legs. This zone also goes up to thumbs  covering shoulders and arms. Zone 1, thus feeds a part or entire area of the organs falling in this zone according to their actual position in the body namely head, brain, spine, nose, mouth, chin, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, thymus and adrenal glands, lungs, heart (on the left as well as on right side), oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, liver (on right side), ureter, uterus, sex organs, prostate, urinary bladder, rectum and anus.

Fig. 1
Division of the body into longitudinal zones


Zone-2
Comes from the top of the head and runs down to the second toe and likewise up to the tips of first finger. This zone covers certain portion of the brain, eyes, sinuses, tonsils, lungs, bronchial tubes, heart (on right and left, both sides), stomach, liver (on right side), solar plexus, pancreas (on left side), kidneys and small intestine.

Zone-3
Emanates from the top of the head and goes up to third toe in feet and also up to second finger in hands. It includes some portion of the brain, eyes, lungs, heart (on left side), stomach (on left side), solar plexus, pancreas (on left side), liver (on right side), kidneys, appendix on right side and small intestine on both sides of the body.

Zone-4
Extends from top of the head down to fourth toe in feet and third finger in hands. This zone feeds certain area in brain, ears, shoulders, lungs, heart (on left side), stomach, spleen and pancreas (all three on the left side), liver, gall bladder and appendix (all three on right side) small intestine and colon on both sides.

Zone-5
Moves from top of the head down to little toes and little 10 fingers in feet and hands, respectively. The fifth zone covers the outer side of the head, certain portion of the brain, ears, shoulders, upper arms, spleen (on left side), liver, gall bladder, ileocecal valve and appendix (all four on the right side) and colon on both sides. Although all the toes, thumbs and fingers embody reflex areas for the brain and head, but the major reflexes for the brain and head exist in big toes and thumbs. Interestingly, each big toe and thumb contains reflexes for half portion of the brain and head on respective side. In addition each big toe and thumb subdivides into five zones. From above, it is clear that according to zone therapy, each foot and hand contains the reflex points of various organs falling in half portion of the body on that side as is evident form fig. 1. To facilitate the quick and accurate detection of various reflex points pertaining to different organs, the founders of zone therapy have further divided hands and feet into transverse zones as is shown in fig. 2. The transverse zones in hands and feet showing the reflex areas of various organs are shown in fig.3. To get the desired results from zone therapy, it is imperative that one must possess the basic knowledge of the position of various organs in the body. A number of drawings inserted in the beginning of the book give approximate location of the organs in the body and their reflex points in hands and feet.

Fig.2
Division of hands into traverse zone

Fig.3
Division of upper part and both hands and feet into traverse zone

Representation of various organs in hands & feet

Part of hand/feet Reflex points of organ Big toes/thumbs Head, neck Small toes/ fingers Head Shoulder line to diaphragm line in feet/ hands Chest, lungs, shoulders Arch (upper portion) Diaphragm to waist portion of the body and the organs falling in upper abdominal area. Arch (lower portion) Waist to pelvic portion of the body and organs lying in lower abdominal region. Heel Pelvic area and sciatic nerve. Inner foot/hand Half portion of the spine of right side and half portion on left side. Outer area of foot/hand Arm, shoulder, hip, leg, knee and lower back. Ankle area of feet/wrists Pelvic area, reproductive organs.

Duration

Pressure should be applied at each centre with the help of humb / finger in a rotatory motion. Pressure should be in accordance with patient's tolerance for about half minute to two minutes, twice a day. While giving pressure just move the hand and not the ear In pregnant women and patients suffering from serious heart condition, avoid giving pressure on ear.IdentificationThe points corresponding to diseased organs are usually tender as compared to other points. They may also be swollen or discoloured. Disease TheoryHow Reflexology WorksThe ancient healers had made a deep study of the human ailments. They believed in the oneness of universe and individual body as a small cosmos-and order and harmony are possible when there is coordination and cooperation among various organs in the body. They were of the view that when this natural equilibrium was disturbed in the body for one reason or the other, one or more ailments took place according to the proportion and nature of imbalance or disturbance. According to them, Reflexology was the best system to restore normal functioning of the body in a natural way.There has been much discussion previously, and even in recent years, about the working of Reflexology. The much talked theory which many ancient healers as well as modernReflexology therapists advocate is that Reflexology cleanses the body of toxins and impurities which accumulate in nerve endings leading to many ailments. These toxic chemicals, in fact, obstruct the normal flow of energy to various organs and disturb the balance of the body.It is through Reflexology that various crystals like calcium deposits, which accumulate at the nerve endings in hands, feet and certain other parts of the body, are broken down. Once such harmful material is crushed into pieces and uprooted, it goes out of body through various outlets. Some Reflexology therapists, thus, suggest that before or immediately after massage of reflex points, a glass of plain water should be taken so that poisonous substances are driven out from the body immediately through urine and other outlets.As per zone theory, which is the basis of Reflexology or reflexology, energy is constantly flowing in the body through ten invisible channels. When this normal energy flow is disrupted due to one reason or the other, diseases arise. The fundamental concept of energy flow is accepted in all branches of natural healing-Reflexology, acupuncture, shiatsu, zone therapy, reflexology and polarity therapy. On these ten energy pathway sexist some reflex points also called 'push buttons', acu-points or trigger points which when pressed with thumbs, fingers or with some other devices, activate the life force in the body and create a balance of energy where there was previously an imbalance.Such type of pressure also keeps the body in perfect order if there is no disease or loss of strength. Reflexology thus performs two unique functions-during the condition of disease it works asa curative method and during normal functioning of the body it helps as a preventive measure for maintaining good health and fitness.Every system in the body has its own importance but blood circulation and nervous system are two most powerful streams which exercise overall control on the working of the human body. A perfect circulation is a vital force which carries necessary nutrients to all tissues. Reflexology helps a lot to improve and strengthen the circulatory system leading to better functioning of all organs. The modern medical science accepts that about 75 per cent of all ailments take place due to 'nerve tension' in different areas of the body. Fear, stress, sadness, anger, anxiety and worry all lead to tension, sickness and age ing. Reflexology helps in releasing tension and in maintaining good health. Another school of thought gives one more scientific theory that body is electrical in nature. When any fault relating to loss of energy from any part of the body takes place, diseases arise.

Contact heading, Reflexology or reflexology is an age-old method of contacting various electrical centres in the human body and restoring normal energy flow to all organs by plugging energy leakage.
All branches of medical treatment agree that human body possesses immense natural strength to cure itself of any disease.
It, however, requires impetus or external force to rejuvenate its
energy. It is now an established fact that Reflexology is one of those remarkable few natural systems which revives and revitalises the hidden strength in the body to cure all ailments. Reflexology works, its results are indeed marvellous and matchless. Many theories are proposed about its working but we have to accept it that how this system works inside the body is still a mystery. One can hope that a single scientific explanation appealing to all, including men in modern medical profession, will be available in the years to come.How to Locate the Correct Reflex Points Reflexology is a unique system in two respects - easy detection of diseases and their prompt cure. It is perhaps the only natural therapy through which one can easily ascertain the normal or abnormal functioning of different internal organ of the
body instantly by pressing certain reflex points in hands and feet. Similarly, it is by pressing these points that many ailments can be cured without any medicines and without any side effects.
To cure a disease through Reflexology, the primary act is to ascertain the involvement of specific organs in that ailment. The next step is to locate the relevant reflex points in hands, feet and other parts of the body so as to start the treatment. From the drawings given in the previous pages, the location of reflex points representing various organs and different systems in the body is very clear. For example, if a person is suffering from some problem concerning urinary
system, he can start giving pressure in the feet and hands on the reflex points of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and the relevant area of spine, and like wise in other diseases. Now, the question arises whether pressure is being given on the right points or not.
The major criteria for detecting the accurate reflex points in the case of any disease or abnormal functioning of a particular organ is the feeling of excessive and intolerable pain by pressing the respective areas. In case of any disease, the patient feels too much pain on the concerned reflex points by pressing them as if
some nail or piece of glass has entered that area. Strangely, the patient does not feel such type of prickly pain either before or after giving the pressure. It is only on giving pressure that one comes to know about the normal or abnormal functioning of an organ through the pinch of pain. It is thus clear that any spot in the reflex area representing a particular organ which hurts too severely on giving pressure is
the proper reflex point for that organ. It would, thus, not be necessary to locate the problem points everyday. Generally, there is only one major reflex point for every organ but there can be more than one reflex points according to the size of the organ and nature of problem. In case of pituitary gland, a small organ in the body, there will be only one reflex point, while in case of liver, which is the largest organ in the body, there can be more than one reflex points. Painful reflex points are, in fact, the indicators of some problem inside the body.

When the disease subsides or is completely cured, these particular areas in hands
and feet will indicate less pain or no pain at all. Regarding size of reflex points, the Reflexology experts are of the view that each such point will measure not more than a size of pea. In children and infants its size will be comparatively small. Some therapists, however, suggest that every Reflexology point is of the size of pinhead in area, just below the surface of the skin and is more electrically conductive than the surrounding area of the body. While detecting the correct pressure points, it should always be kept in mind that as each individual body differs, so the points of each person may not be exactly the same spot in hands and feet. According to the body structure of the person concerned, the location of reflex points can also vary. But these will definitely be in the same zone and same area. In addition, reflex points of more than one organ can be in the same area in hands and feet according to their position in the body. Certain glands and organs are virtually on top of each other, tightly fixed in the body. Take the case of liver, gall bladder and upper portion of ascending colon and likewise of stomach and pancreas, kidneys and upper coils of small intestine etc. which are very close to each other. The reflex points of such organs are, thus, so near to each other that sometimes it becomes very difficult to distinguish whether these are of liver, gall bladder, small intestine or ascending colon etc.

There is another important factor to remember in the context of reflex points. It is the principle of zone therapy that all those organs which fall in a particular zone in the body, their reflex points in hands and feet will also become tender if any organ in that zone becomes sick, because they are linked with the same life force current. For example, in case of any eye 36 disease the reflex points of all organs falling in zone 2 and 3 i.e. of eyes, kidneys, liver and small intestine will also become sore, some less some more. As such, for cure of any eye ailment, it will be imperative to press the reflex points of eyes, liver, kidneys and small intestine to restore the normal energy flow in both the zones, particularly in the area of the eyes. The same procedure will have to be adopted in the case of all diseases. For the proper diagnosis of many diseases and their treatment through Reflexology, it is very important that one must have basic knowledge about the working of the body, the position of various organs in the body and their function, understanding of zone therapy and location of numerous reflex points in hands, feet and other parts of the body. By going through the following description, which is strictly according to the zone therapy, it will be very easy to understand the exact location of reflex points of major organs and glands, in hands and feet. An effort has also been made to describe such locations through various illustrations in the book.

Pituitary gland : Its reflex point exists in the centre of both big toes and thumbs in zone l.
Pineal gland : Its reflex point is situated in zone 1 at the inner side towards the top of big toes and thumbs. Hypothalamus : Its reflex point is at the same place as that of pineal gland.
Brain : Reflex points of brain are located in all five zones in upper portion of tips of thumbs, big toes, fingers and toes.
Spine : On the inner side of both feet and both 37 hands, reflex points of all 33 vertebrae of spine are situated beginning from both big toes and ending down towards heels in zone 1 (fig. 12,13). Likewise starting from inner side of thumbs it goes towards wrists on both sides in zone 1.
Thyroid gland : The reflex area of the thyroid gland is situated at the base of both big toes and base of both thumbs in zone 1.
Parathyroid gland : The reflex points of these glands are located around the thyroid area in zone 1.
Thymus gland : Its reflex area is found in zone 1 in both feet and hands.
Eyes : The reflex points of eyes are situated beneath the second and third toe in feet and at the base of first (index) and second finger in hands in zone 2 and 3.
Ears : The reflex area of ears is located at the base of fourth and fifth toe in feet and at the base of third and little finger in hands in zone 4 and 5. Heart : Its reflex area largely falls in left foot and left hand from zones 1 to 4 and in zone 1 to 2 in right foot and right hand between the shoulder line and diaphragm line. Lungs : The reflex points of lungs are situated in upper side of feet and hands in zones 1 to 4 between the shoulder line and diaphragm line.

Solar plexus : Its reflex area is found beneath the diaphragm line in feet and hands between zones 2 and 3.
Liver : Its reflex points are found in right foot and right hand in zones 1 to 5 between the diaphragm line and waist line.
Gall bladder : Its reflex points are between zone 4 and 5 in right foot about two fingers above the waist line. Likewise its reflex points are in right hand in zones 4 and 5.
Stomach : The major part of stomach's reflex area is situated in left foot and left hand in zones 1 to 4 and some area in right foot and right hand in zones 1 and 2. Pancreas : Its reflex area is located mostly in left foot and left hand from zones 1 to 4 and some portion in right foot and right hand in zone l and zone 2.
Duodenum : The reflex area of duodenum is located in both feet and both hands in zone 1 on the waist line.
Spleen : Spleen is on the left side of the body. Its reflex points are located in zone 4 and 5 in left foot as well as left hand.
Adrenal glands : One gland each is situated on the upper portion of each kidney. The reflex points of the adrenal glands are thus located in both feet and hands midway between the diaphragm line and the waist line in zone 1.

Kidneys : One kidney on each side of the body is situated in the mid back area. Their reflex points are found in both feet and both hands in zones 2 and 3 on the waist line.
Ureters : The reflex points of ureters are found in both feet and both hands between the waist and pelvic lines in zone l.
Bladder : Its reflex point is situated in both feet in zone 1 where the heel starts. Similarly it is found in both hands where hand meets with wrist in zone 1.
Small intestine : The reflex area of the small intestine is situated in both feet and both hands from the waist line to the pelvic line, inside the region of large intestine, spreading from zone 1 to 4.
Ileocecal valve : Its reflex point is situated in the right foot and right hand in zone 5. Colon : The ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid, all are integrated parts of the colon. Their reflex points according to the placement of the colon in the body are situated in zones 1 to 5, in both feet as well as in both hands.
Appendix : The reflex point of appendix is located in zone 5 in right foot and right hand, slightly above the pelvic line.
Uterus/Prostate : The reflex points of uterus (in women) and prostate (in men) are situated over both feet on the inside of the ankles, midway 40 on a straight line from the base of the heel to the ankle bone. The reflex points of these organs are also found on wrist on both arms on the thumb side in about 1½" area.
Ovaries/ Testicles: The reflex points of ovaries (in women) and testicles (in men) are located over both feet on the outside of the ankles, midway on a straight line from the base of the heel to the ankle bone. The reflex points of both these organs are also found on wrist on both arms parallel to third and little finger in about 1½" area. Fallopian tubes/ : The reflex points of fallopian tubes (in Seminal Vesicles/ women) and seminal vesicles/vas deferens Vas Deferens (in men) are situated over both feet across the top of the feet from one ankle bone to the other in all five zones. Similarly, these points are found over the hands in the lower region where hand meets the arm, from thumb side to little finger side in all five zones. Reflexology is a scientific and perfect system of treatment but like all other established medical systems, Reflexology too has its limitations. It has wonderful diagnostic peculiarities. Just by pressing various reflex areas, one can detect which organ is not functioning properly or where the problem lies.

Reflex points are indeed mirror to the internal organs and pain on these points indicates the extent of disease. There are 41 thousands of ailments related to various systems in the body. The ancient as well as the modern therapists have cured from minor to so-called incurable diseases with Reflexology. Still, there are certain diseases, like cancer, which if not treated in earlier stages, can lead to disaster. It would be, thus, advisable that while starting Reflexology treatment one must be sure that the patient is not suffering from any serious disease like cancer where time factor is very important and medicine is absolutely necessary for the health of the patient. In such cases, Reflexology can be applied in conjunction with some other treatment. Reflexology can help to a great extent even in cancer cases, especially in reducing the intensity of pain. There should be, thus, a clear approach of Reflexology therapists. If the ailment does not respond to Reflexology within a reasonable time, there should not be any hesitation in obtaining an objective diagnosis but that too from a wellqualified doctor. It should not be done as routine matter unless it is absolutely necessary in the interest of patient. Sometimes, such diagnosis helps in detecting the right reflex points and in giving more attention to those points which can help in accelerating the cure.

Do's and Don'ts

Reflexology is a unique system which can be applied anywhere and any time, in minor to major diseases without the risk of any side-effects. Its results are really marvellous. To derive full advantage of this scientifically proven therapy, it would, however, be advisable to follow certain principles which 42 will further help in curing numerous diseases promptly. 1. It is very important that the place of treatment should be clean, well-ventilated, at normal bearable temperature, have soothing and attractive environment which helps to release tension and create a sense of joy, satisfaction and well being. 2. The furniture for the patient as well as for the therapist should be specially designed so that both feel comfortable during the period of treatment. Comfortable domestic furniture can also serve the purpose. Treatment can be given while the subject is lying down in bed in a straight posture (fig. 19) or sitting in a chair (fig. 20 and 21) but in both positions, the patient should feel relaxed. Pressure can be given on relevant reflex points by the patient himself as shown in fig. 22.


Fig.19 and Fig. 20

 Fig. 21
 Fig. 22

3. It would be better if one glass of plain water is taken before or after 15-20 minutes of Reflexology treatment. Plenty of plain water i.e. 8 to 10 glasses should be taken daily at short intervals. Plain water alone will help in flushing out toxins from the body. 4. While starting the treatment for the first time, the therapist must explain in brief the working of Reflexology to the patient, especially the pain factor. Often, some patients are worried that the treatment is going to be painful. Every patient should, thus, be told that pain on pressure is the indication of the problem inside the body. There will be some points where one will feel no pain at all even with strong pressure while certain points will show considerable amount of pain. With the recovery, the pressure pain will gradually decrease and ultimately will vanish. The patient will, thus, gladly cooperate with the therapist. 5. The therapist must wash his hands properly before starting the treatment. Utmost hygiene should be observed in 44 attending different patients and especially in the use of any oil, talcum powder, towel, bed-sheet etc. Some therapists don't recommend use of any cream, lotion or oil on the recipient's hands and feet or therapist's own hands. According to them, if the skin is covered with oil or cream, the thumb will glide making it difficult to find accurate reflex points and press them properly. The crushing of crystalline deposits in hands and feet would thus not be possible. They, however, allow use of oil or cream on sensitive areas like around ankles and sides of fingers and toes for massage and light pressure. The therapist also must keep the nails of thumbs and fingers short as long nails can hurt any patient's skin especially that of children. In winter, while starting the treatment, the therapist must rub his/her hands together briskly to warm them to avoid giving feeling of cold touch tome patient. 6. Never give treatment when one has a full stomach because in that case the pressure can upset digestive process. It should preferably be given when one has empty stomach, or taken very light refreshment or after two-three hours of taking meals. 7. Reflex points of spine can be pressed any time since these are not directly involved indigestion. 8. Don't give Reflexology treatment just before or immediately after taking a bath or undergoing full body massage or after strenuous physical exercises or any laborious activity. In such cases, there should be a gap of about half an hour. This treatment should not be given to pregnant women and persons suffering form serious cardiac problems. Pregnant women suffering from spondylosis, migraine, headache, 45 insomnia, asthma, bronchitis, cough, allergy, depression, anxiety and some other diseases where reproductive organs and lower abdomen area is not directly involved, can be given pressure on hands and feet and that too when it is absolutely necessary. This treatment can be helpful to those pregnant ladies who cannot take medicines. It is also advisable not to give Reflexology treatment to a woman during her menstruation period as it can lead to somewhat excessive and prolonged bleeding as well as discomfort. If it is absolutely necessary to give pressure in certain diseases, it should not be given on reflex points concerning reproductive organs. 9. Pressure can, however, be given to anybody, any time, in any position and any physical condition even when there is an emergency like fainting, heart attack, paralysis or some other disease which needs immediate attention. 10. Very light pressure should be given to those persons suffering from serious diseases of lung, liver and kidneys. Patients who are on life saving drugs and show improvement with Reflexology must not decrease or stop medicines without the advice of their doctor. 11. Direct pressure should not be given on that part of the body where there is infection, swelling, fracture, scar, mole or a wart. In such cases, pressure should be given on referral areas or on some other suitable reflex points. 12. It is important to note that when attending children, very light pressure and that too with thumbs and fingers should be given because they have delicate system. Never use gadgets or other electrical instruments on children. 13. Reflexology has no side-effects whatsoever, still, there may 46 be some persons who may, for one reason or the other, feel little aggravation of the problem or no relief at all even after many days of treatment. In that case, the treatment should be stopped unless the therapist is sure of getting good results after more sittings. 14. Doctor's advice for rest/diet and for precautions must be taken seriously. The basic principles of health apply in all systems of treatment whether allopathy, homoeopathy, ayurveda, nature cure and Reflexology. 15. While treating a particular disease, the emphasis should be on relevant reflex points but in every case, points concerning nervous system, especially the brain, lymphatic system, circulation and kidneys (fig. 23 & 24) must be pressed as these release tension and purge the body of harmful substances.

 Fig. 23 and Fig. 24

 

16. Diet plays an important role along with any system of treatment because all food items don't suit all persons. Generally, too spicy, ice-cold foods and drinks and alcohol should be stopped permanently or at least avoided during the period of treatment. Fats and sugar should be taken in 47 moderate quantity. 17. Reflexology is also a self-help therapy but it is always more beneficial if it is taker in a relaxed position at proper place, from some other person, may be a family member, but preferably from a trained and experienced therapist. 18. Reflexology is a simple yet very effective treatment. It, however, requires proper attention for exploring various reflex points and giving pressure attentively in a systematic manner. It is thus important that both the patient and the therapist must keep complete silence during the time of treatment. Whatever is to be inquired and whatever is to be told by any of them, should be done before or after the treatment. As far as possible there should be no interruption i.e. of telephone, mobile etc. 19. Keep a daily record of your experiences, feelings, improvement and aggravation of the problem (though it may occur in rare cases and that too for reasons other than Reflexology) to analyse the progress. It will also help if the detail of all food items taken daily is penned at least during the period of treatment to find out which food item is not good for the body. 20. Just as the doctors suggest a tentative time for taking medicines, it is better to fix a convenient time for taking Reflexology treatment during the day. It helps in achieving speedy results. 21. Many diseases are outcome of worry, tension, anxiety and feelings of uncertainty. Reflexology helps in curbing all negative thoughts. To make Reflexology more elective, one must try to develop optimistic outlook, noble ideas and a 48 strong sense for good health. Light and melodious music soothing the senses can be played during the treatment to make it more effective. 22. During the period of treatment, and otherwise too, one should eat normally. Dieting or fasting is not required because the body requires well-balanced and nutritional meals for combating ailments. Over eating is harmful. It should be avoided. 23. Reflexology has no clash with any other medical system and can be applied in conjunction with any pathy. In nonserious cases, there is no need to depend on any other system when Reflexology alone can cure. In case of serious or persistent symptoms, it is better to consult your doctor.

Pressure Technique -Most Distinctive Feature

In Reflexology, basic knowledge of body's functioning, understanding of zone therapy and method of locating correct reflex points is an important aspect, but the correct pressure technique is the most important feature of this system. Pressure given in an incorrect manner does not yield results. It is, thus, very important to know various methods of applying pressure in hands and feet to cure diseases and to rejuvenate the body.

Fig. 25 and Fig. 26

As discussed earlier, one must know the method to find out correct reflex points by applying pressure with some gadget or with thumbs (fig. 25 & 26) at a number of points in hands and feet. After ascertaining the location of reflex points, the next step is to apply pressure on these points in a systematic and right manner. Pressure is always given on bare feet and hands and not over socks, stockings and gloves. The oldest, the simplest and the best method of applying pressure is with thumb (fig. 27) or thumbs. Pressure can also be given with finger or fingers, fist, palm and elbow (fig. 27-34 and 209) according to the requirement of specific part of the body.

While starting pressure, the first step is the position of the recipient and the therapist. Both should sit face to face, the recipient sitting in a chair, with one foot or both feet resting simultaneously on a stool before him, and the therapist sitting either on a stool or a chair, keeping the gadgets, cream and hand towel in a rack on his right side. Pressure can also be given while the subject is lying on a bed in a comfortable position, the legs fully stretched and the therapist sitting on a stool or chair facing 51 the recipient. Pressure in hands can be given while holding the hand of the patient. Any two persons can give pressure to each other in feet simultaneously while sitting on a bed or a carpet on the floor. This technique is very useful for those persons who can afford very little time for exercise. However, pressure in hands cannot be given to each other by two persons simultaneously. Before examining the patient or starting the pressure, the therapist should warm his hands by rubbing them together for a few seconds. Never examine or give pressure to the patient with cold hands. After warming his own hands, the therapist should relax the patient's feet and hands by gently rubbing (fig. 35, 36, and 37) with his fingers and palms.

In order to give a soothing touch, some talcum powder can be smeared over the recipient's hands and feet. If it is the first visit of the patient to the therapist, it would be advisable to first 52 record the medical history of the patient and then accurate reflex points should be searched as per zone therapy and be marked in a chart-for repeating pressure on subsequent visits. After ascertaining the reflex points, press the relevant points preferably with thumb (fig. 26) or with a pointed gadget made of rubber or wood (fig. 25) especially for this purpose. While applying pressure with right hand, the therapist should firmly hold the foot of the patient (fig. 38) with his left hand. This will help the therapist to give pressure in a right manner. The pressure with thumb or gadget should be soothing but at the same time go down the skin so as to touch the relevant reflex points. Pressure given in rotary motion adopting clockwise direction (fig. 39) is the most appropriate method. It is ideal to use the ball of thumb (fig. 40) to give pressure.

Those who have weak thumbs or their thumbs cannot give pressure for a longer period can use the index (finger next to thumb) and third finger separately or jointly, with index finger placed over the third finger. Where more pressure is required it can be given placing one thumb over the other (fig. 31) or with some rubber or wooden gadget. Pressure along the spine should be given either with thumbs (fig. 32 and 160) or with one or both 53 palms. Never give pressure along the spine with any pointed gadget. It can, however, be given with rubber or wooden gadget called spine roller (fig. 46) keeping the wheels of the roller at least half an inch away from the spine otherwise the instrument can hurt the vertebrae. Those parts of the body which have very tender and sensitive skin, like fingers, toes, areas adjoining ankles, upper portion of hands and feet, and back side of knees should always be pressed with thumbs and fingers and not with any instrument. On such parts some non-greasy cream or a bit of mustard oil can be applied before giving the pressure, and should be wiped with a towel after pressure. Small children should always be given pressure with thumbs and fingers and that too with utmost care. Never give pressure with thumb (fig. 30) in a straight position. The ideal position has been shown in fig. 27, 28 and 29 which is comfortable both for the patient and the therapist. The pressure on the reflex points needs to be gentle but reasonably firm and strong to the extent that it is felt below the skin. Crude, rough and strong pressure can produce red or blue marks. Some persons have very sensitive skin and by simple touch develop red or blue marks and swelling. It is nothing serious but simple reaction of the sensitive skin. If such marks or swelling don't disappear by the time of next sitting, pressure should be deferred for two-three days. By that time, these symptoms will vanish and pressure can be started again. Don't give direct pressure on varicose veins as it can lead to more pain and discomfort to the patient. Those who have made deep research about the method and technique of Reflexology, are of the opinion that as body is 54 integrated in constitution and functioning, every ailment should be tackled taking the body as a single entity. They, thus, suggest that in case of any disease, reflex points of all organs and glands should be pressed giving an emphasis on the reflex points of the affected organs and glands. They further advise that the treatment should be started by first giving the pressure on solar plexus points (fig. 41) in both feet and hands. According to them without putting the solar plexus in order, pressure on the reflex points will not work to the desired extent.
 Fig. 41

Another school of therapists, however, opine that while starting treatment, first give pressure on the reflex points of pituitary gland. They also advise that whatever may be the problem, in addition to the reflex points of concerned organs, the reflex points of brain, thyroid, parathyroid, lungs, stomach, liver, kidneys and lymphatic system must be pressed as these are the major organs around which other systems revolve. The third group of therapists have another plea. They suggest, first start the pressure from points of brain in all tips of fingers and toes to lessen the tension and then press the reflex points which have been found painful. It would be more appropriate if a list of all painful reflex points is made after minutely examining the feet and 55 hands. These points should be marked in a chart for further reference. The treatment should be started from the points of pituitary gland and brain. After that the reflex points found painful should be pressed along with points of all major organs and glands i.e. thyroid, parathyroid, heart, stomach, liver, kidneys and lymphatic system. It would be better if the symptoms and causes of the particular ailments are kept in view as these will help in examining and finding the correct reflex points and tackling the problems efficaciously. There is no consensus as to which hand and foot should be taken first for giving pressure. A number of healers suggest that pressure can be started on any foot first, but it should be kept in mind that after finishing the pressure over feet, the pressure in hands should be given in same order. This will help in maintaining the balanced flow of energy in the body. There is, however, no binding on the first priority given to feet or hands. Research has also revealed that it is not necessary to apply pressure to feet as well as to hands at the same time. While some therapists are of the view that pressure given in feet and hands simultaneously leads to better results, others hold that as hands and feet contain the identical reflex points, results can be obtained by applying pressure either in hands or in feet. There is, however, no harm if hands and feet are treated during the same sitting. All therapists admit that reflex points in feet are spread over a larger area due to bigger size of feet in comparison to hands and can be easily located. As the hands remain occupied in different activities and the area of the reflex points in them is somewhat small in size, it requires more perfection and accuracy to find them out and give pressure. It would be thus 56 better if both hands and feet are treated in one sitting, giving more time to reflex points in feet. There are again two ideologies as to how to follow the sequence of pressure. Majority of therapists are of the view that while giving pressure, it should be from top to bottom i.e. starting from tips of toes going down towards heels in feet, and from tips of fingers going towards wrists covering the whole of hands. This pressure should be applied either organ wise on the respective reflex points, or covering the pathways of all ten zones, five in right foot and five in left foot and likewise in hands. A number of therapists also recommend that while giving pressure horizontally, it should be from outer side to inner side (same procedure in hands and feet), as it will facilitate easy elimination of toxins from the body. They argue that if the direction is reversed i.e. from inner side to outer side, the crushed toxins will move to the extreme ends of hands and feet making it difficult to be flushed out by the main stream of blood. Some therapists, however, are not convinced by this theory. They are of the view that once the toxins are crushed into microscopic pieces, these will definitely go out of the body because there are many channels and systems in the body to push them out. In order to derive maximum benefit from this system, it is better to give pressure from top to bottom in feet and hands as well. If pressure is to be applied on the whole area in feet and hands, then horizontal line of action can be adopted. Otherwise the therapist should himself decide the procedure to be adopted according to the disease, time factor and emergency, if any, in handling the case. While discussing location, size, working and diseases of various organs in the body the forthcoming chapters of the book, 57 a special reference has been made about the pressure technique to be followed in different body systems. This will give more correct idea about the proper pressure technique.

Referral areas

Unlike any other medical system, reflexology and Reflexology have certain marvellous specialities. One is referral areas in the body. We have discussed earlier that it would be better to give pressure on various reflex points in hands and feet for curing numerous diseases but in case a particular area or areas in hands, feet, arms, shoulders and legs itself is injured, swollen, fractured or not in a position to be touched due to extraordinary sensitivity for any reason, in that case the particular area in hands, feet, arms, shoulders and legs can be cured by giving pressure on the respective corresponding areas. Those persons who have lost certain portions or whole of hands, feet, arms, shoulders or legs can benefit with the assistance of corresponding areas and zone therapy. Following are the referral areas for different body organs which can be pressed at the time of necessity. Their position in the body has been described below which gives a clear idea of the concept of referral areas and zone therapy. In addition, any pain or some other problem at a particular area or spot can be cured with this ideology: Organ / Area Foot Sole of foot Top of foot Big toe Referral Organ Area Hand Palm of hand (right side for right and left side for left side organ/area) Backside of hand Thumb 58 Small toes Ankle Calf Shin Knee Thigh Up Fingers Wrist Forearm (inner) Forearm (outer) Hbow Upper arm Shoulder

Duration of Sittings

There is no consensus amongst Reflexology specialists about the duration of each sitting of Reflexology treatment to be given to a patient for curing diseases. Certain Chinese healers and Shiatsu experts, who treat the patients by pressing some fixed points as per meridians other than reflexology and zone therapy, recommend the following time limit for each day's Reflexology session according to the age-group of the patients:

• New born babies : ½ to 3 minutes
• Babies between 3 to 6 months : l to 4 minutes
• Babies between 6 to 12 months : 1 to 5 minutes
• Children aged 1 to 3 years : 3 to 7 minutes • Older Children : 5 to 10 minutes •Adults : 5 to 15 minutes

This group of therapists is of the view that pressure on each point should be restricted between 7 to 15 seconds. The modern reflexologists who treat patients as per zone therapy, which is our subject are of the view that a typical reflexology treatment session should last about 30 to 40 minutes or a little more per day. To give pressure for a longer time than one hour in one sitting is excessive. The specific reflex points concerning particular ailments and of major organs in the body 59 should be given more time, from few seconds to one-two minutes per point, depending upon the nature of the problem. Too much concentration on a point, does not yield extraordinary results rather that area in hands and feet becomes sore and sensitive. In this context, the advice of Eunice D. Ingham, one of the leading therapists of the twentieth century, should always be kept in mind, "It is better to undertreat than overtreat". It would be better if the Reflexology therapist himself decides after examining every patient thoroughly which points in his or her case need more attention and time. There can be general guidelines for total time to be devoted in one session but not the final word as every individual patient needs a different approach to his or her ailment. Regarding the number of sessions needed daily, one session of treatment is recommended per day, either in the morning or in the evening according to the convenience of the patient. Some therapists are of the view that two sittings can be given per day at an interval of five to seven hours or even less if the nature of diseast and the condition of the patient so demands. There is also a section of such therapists who suggest that pressure should be given once or twice a week only. The ideal course would be to give pressure once a day for about 15 to 45 minutes depending upon the disease, need and physical capacity of the patient. Pressure can, however, be applied two or three times a day in the severe cases of migraine, vertigo or asthma, in emergency cases, in those circumstances where the patient is solely dependent on Reflexology or where the patient is allergic to medicines. When a significant improvement takes place or in the case of those patients who cannot tolerate even moderate 60 pressure daily, they can be attended to once, twice or thrice a week. In such cases, the decision should be taken by the therapist himself keeping in view various factors about the patient's general health, nature of the disease and pressure endurance capacity. New born babies should ordinarily be left for child specialists as they require very special and timely attention. Babies above six months of age and children should be given very soft touch pressure and that too from 5 to 10 minutes according to their requirements.

Number of Sittings Required for Cure

One question which is generally put to every therapist by patients is the number of sittings required for complete cure of their ailments. It is almost very difficult for any doctor of any pathyto precisely tell the period of complete recovery in any disease. Unlike other pathies, if an Reflexology therapist has properly examined the reflex points and has started the treatment in an appropriate manner, significant improvement starts from the first session itself. It is on the basis of these results that a vague idea can be formed about the complete recovery or satisfactory progress in different diseases. There are some diseases in certain age-groups where complete recovery cannot be expected and logically one must be satisfied with some significant improvement. There are, however, a number of diseases which can be fully cured with Reflexology and there are others where after recovery certain precautions are to be taken so as to avoid their recurrence. 61 The patients undergoing treatment of any pathy must keep in mind a natural principle that disorders which continue for a long time and are of some serious nature will naturally take a long time in recovery. In Reflexology, however, miracles take place at most of the centres daily where numerous chronic cases get cured almost instantly and many go with the hope that they will be cured of their so-called incurable ailments. Miracles, no doubt, cannot be expected in all cases. One thing is certain that Reflexology extends relief to every patient; the percentage can vary from disease to disease. Again, many factors viz body's constitution, diet, posture, family environment, working conditions and one's temperament and outlook all contribute to recovery in all diseases. Many Reflexology therapists have recorded somewhat identical period during which a number of ailments get cured through this system, the detail of which is given below. This period does not apply in all cases, some patients may take less time and some comparatively more time as recovery depends on many factors from individual to individual. This list does not mention the names of all diseases. In Reflexology, all those cases can be tried where there is no emergency and one can wait to let the system do its work in a natural way.

Usefulness of Gadgets for Giving Pressure

Reflexology, reflexology and shiatsu, all natural pathiesare based upon the principles of giving pressure on different parts of the body with thumbs, fingers, palms etc. Life style and physical activities of all human-beings have greatly changed since the time these systems of natural treatment were invented. Ancient healers have been shown giving pressure with thumbs, fingers, palms and elbows, in certain pictures which relate to the previous centuries. Majority of reflexologists and Reflexology specialists in U.S.A., Europe, Canada and some other countries give pressure to their patients with thumbs and fingers. This has two advantages-first, giving pressure with thumbs and fingers helps in minutely exploring acute sensitive points in hands and feet; second, it does not hurt the skin of the patient. Above all, it builds faith of patient for the therapist who has put adequate time to diagnose and to treat the disease. Climatically, the majority of people in U.S.A., Europe, Canada and some other countries who reside in snow covered areas have soft skin and don't need pressure with any hard device. In many countries including India where climate changes frequently during the year and a large section of people have 64 rough and tough skin of hands and feet, pressure cannot be given to all patients effectively with thumbs and fingers on all reflex points. In such cases, the therapists, besides giving pressure with thumbs and fingers, need the assistance of some gadgets to get the desired results. Generally, a therapist can easily give pressure to four-five patients at a stretch without the assistance of any gadgets but those therapists who have to attend a large number of patients daily, need to use some gadgets to lessen their physical burden. One thing must be kept in mind that total dependence on gadgets is neither required nor beneficial. In self-help cases, gadgets can also be used on those reflex points where hard pressure is required or in such cases where patients have weak thumbs and fingers and find it difficult to use them for pressure purposes. In recent times hundreds of items for giving pressure have flooded the market. These items may serve the purpose to some extent but no research has been carried out so far by any individual or organisation to find out the extent of their utility. In this scientific era, adequate research is required to apprise the people of the usefulness of various gadgets. As far as the number of gadgets is concerned, it can be conveniently given with threefour different items depending upon the portion of the body where pressure is needed. It would be appropriate to mention here that a number of gadgets have been invented by some therapists for their own use and for the facility of patients. The practitioners in their various conventions should also think over the practicality of various Reflexology instruments available in the market, recommend the 65 use of really good items, ask the manufacturers to devise certain new items if actually needed, and improve upon the quality of existing items if in their opinion it is necessary in the interest of the pathy and the patients. During the course of my long practice, I have invented rubber/wooden jimmi (a small device for giving pressure in hands and feet) and magic massager (rubber bail) with 14 elevated points for giving pressure, which I and thousands of my patients have found very useful in curing numerous diseases.

Rubber - Wooden Jimmi

This is about 4" long gadget (fig. 42) made of rubber. It is very easy to handle and to give pressure (fig. 25) on various reflex points in hands and feet. In fact, it is the master gadget and is sufficient to give pressure on various points in hands and feet. Similar type of jimmi is also made of wood. Jimmi can be used in three ways (i) For giving pressure clockwise (ii) For giving static pressure and (iii) By rolling the instrument over the skin to create a soothing effect. Always give pressure with jimmi according to the bearing capacity of the patient, otherwise it can hurt the skin.

Magic Massager (Rubber Ball)

The magic massager, a rubber ball with fourteen elevated points (fig. 43) is another device to give deep massage to the reflex points in hands. The therapy of the rubber ball is being recommended by doctors for a long time to cure arthritis in fingers, hands and arms. There are three methods to use the magic ball : (i) Take the massager in one hand and close the fingers around it, then press the massager with certain force but gently for about 2 to 3 minutes. While pressing, try to change its position in the palm. After massaging the points in one hand, press the ball in another hand likewise. In this way almost all reflex points in both hands are massaged in a soothing manner (ii) Cover the magic massager with both hands and press it with both palms for about 5 to 6 minutes moving its position slowly so that all points in both hands are pressed. This has double advantage as all points in both hands can be pressed simultaneously (fig. 44). (iii) You can, if you so desire, take two balls, putting one ball in 67 each hand, pressing these with the fingers, slowly changing their position in the palms so as to cover all reflex points. This can be done for about 5 to 6 minutes at a time. Pressure with magic massager can be given two-three times a day at an interval of three to four hours each time. The magic massager is safe for everyone - children, young and old. It has been found extremely useful in the diseases of high blood pressure, diabetes, paralysis, arthritis, insomnia, sinusitis, asthma and many other ailments. Regular use of magic massager marvellously helps in reducing excess weight. Its use by sports persons keeps them physically and mentally fit. Magic massager can be used anytime anywhere, but not when the stomach is full otherwise it will disturb the digestive process. Foot-roller All organs, glands and nerves in the body are connected with various reflex areas in soles of the feet. Foot-roller is a good device for pressing the reflex points in feet to some extent. We cannot expect that type of results by pressing foot-roller which are achieved by identifying the painful reflex points in feet and pressing them regularly in a systematic manner. There are three types of foot-rollers available in the market - wooden roller, rubber roller and plastic roller. Wooden roller is the best of all rollers. The plastic roller can be used provided you are sure that it is made of superior quality material and its edges (points) are not very sharp otherwise roller made of inferior plastic and having sharp points can harm the skin in feet and lead to some other diseases.

 Fig. 45

For medium pressure, foot-roller can be rolled under both feet (fig. 45) while sitting on the edge of a bed or in a chair, doing any activity like reading, writing, meeting people, watching TV etc. For somewhat stronger pressure, it can be rolled while standing, putting the roller first under one foot and then under the second foot. Pressure cannot be given in both feet simultaneously while standing. Pressure with roller should be given from 5 to 10 minutes at a time, once or twice a day and be soft otherwise it can hurt the skin of the feet. It is advisable to give pressure empty stomach or after two-three hours of taking meals.

Spine Roller

Spine roller is also a useful apparatus to give pressure along the spine. It is better to use thumbs for giving pressure on both sides of spine but if it is difficult to use thumbs spine roller can be used (fig. 46).

Fig. 46

The wheels of the gadgets should remain at least half an inch away from the spine on both sides. The roller should be pressed smoothly from head side to hips side so as to give light and soothing pressure. It should be limited to two-three rounds at a time, once or twice a day. Never give direct pressure on vertebral column either with thumbs or with spine roller as it can aggravate the problem.

Muscle Relaxing Roller - Energy Roller

Like spine roller, it is a simple small wooden gadget having two round wheels, one on each side of the handle (fig. 47-a) which can be rolled gently on any part of the body, including face. It creates a relaxing impact on the skin, helps in releasing tension and is helpful in curing numerous problems especially insomnia, migraine, phobia, anxiety, depression, mental tension and lack of proper circulation in facial area leading to certain ailments. Its regular use for about 5 to 10 minutes once or twice a day over the upper parts of hands, feet, arms, legs and on face relaxes muscles as well as improves the flow of energy in the body.

Fig. 47

Finger Massager

It is also a small wooden gadget (fig. 47-b) with two rollersone plain and one having elevated points for giving pressure on the fingers of both hands, one by one. It should be rolled over 70 every finger giving three-four rounds of pressure up-down, smoothly. Some drops of mustard oil or some cream can be applied on fingers before giving pressure. This exercise improves circulation in all zones of the body and is especially useful in curing sinusitis, insomnia, headache, migraine, facial paralysis, epilepsy, depression, mental tension, weak memory and eyesight. While rolling the finger massager, elevated point's portion should be kept on the palm side and plain portion on the upper side of the fingers otherwise it can cause injury to the skin over the fingers. This exercise should be done once or twice a day, any times according to the convenience of the patient. It is not necessary that all exercises involving magic massager, foot-roller, spine roller, muscle relaxing roller, finger massager and some other gadgets should be done daily. It depends upon the necessity of every individual to undertake one or more such exercise daily. One thing is certain that use of these gadgets helps in curing and preventing many diseases. Key to Forthcoming Chapters The twentieth century can be described as the golden period in the domain of reflexology and Reflexology as a large number of books have been published in different languages on these subjects in many countries particularly in the last quarter of the century. Significantly, millions of people including may reputed doctors, throughout the world started taking deep interest in these pathies due to their amazing results especially in the treatment of chronic diseases without the use of medicines. It has been our endeavour to discuss the treatment of various diseases in this book as per body systems like nervous 71 system, respiratory system etc. The functioning of all systems and organs has been described briefly which is necessary to understand the body, different diseases and their treatment. We hope readers will appreciate this approach as it will be more convenient for them to understand different ailments when seen as part of various systems in the body. Moreover, it will be easy to find out relevant chapters in the book concerning their problems. There are thousands of ailments from which babies, children, young and old, men and women, have been suffering since time immemorial. We have discussed only those ailments in the book which can be completely or partly cured with Reflexology within a reasonable time. Reflexology can, however, be tried in many other diseases not mentioned in this book as it strengthens the immune system and helps in speedy recovery of almost all ailments.

2. Eye

The human eye is often called the king of the senses, for it gathers 80% of all the knowledge we absorb. It is also called light of the body, pearl of the face, the window of the soul and the mirror of the mind. But the construction of the eye and the intricate way in which it works are far more wonderful than any of the characteristics attributed to it.

Structure of the Eye

The eye functions just like a small camera. It has millions of minute electrical connections which can relay 1.5 million messages simultaneously. Eye is a spherical, fluid filled intricate structure enclosed by three layers. From the outermost to innermost these are :
1. The sclera and cornea
2. The choroid and iris
3. The retina
Most of the eyeball is covered by a tough outer layer, the sclera, which is the visible part of the eye. Anteriorly, this outer layer consists of transparent cornea through which the light rays can pass into the interior of the eye. In case of eye donation, it is 73 the cornea which is transplanted from the donor to the receiver. The middle layer underneath the sclera is highly pigmented choroid which contains many blood vessels that nourish the retina. The innermost coat under choroid is retina which contains photo-receptors that convert light energy into nerve impulses and relay these to the brain.

Different Diseases of the Eye

Normally, the eyes function so flawlessly and precisely that we tend to take them for granted. But not all of us are blessed with eyes that are perfect. One out of every three people in our country uses or ought to use glasses and a fifth of the entire world's blind live in India. Though eyes are small in size, yet they are plagued by many diseases. These diseases can occur in any stage of life, be it childhood or adolescence or old age. Here, we will discuss only those diseases which can either be completely cured by Reflexology or where Reflexology is extremely beneficial.   1. Myopia (Short-sightedness) A myopic person finds it difficult to recognise distant objects. It is quite common people who indulge in excessive reading or writing.
 2. Hypermetropia (Long-sightedness) This leads to dislocated or blurred eyesight. Sometimes this disease is present in children from birth itself.
 2. Presbyopia This is the gradual loss of the eye's ability to focus actively on nearby objects. I natural part of ageing that usually begins to affect people after age 40.

Cataract This is the most common disease of old age. In this, the transparent lens in the eye gradually turns opaque. Generally it happens in both eyes at the same time. Cataract in advanced stage can only be cured by surgery. Glaucoma This is also common in old age (above 40 years). It creates excessive pressure in the eye socket causing blurred vision and headaches. If left untreated, it can lead to blindness. Astigmatism A person suffering from astigmatism (distorted vision caused by uneven curvature of the cornea) has to put lots of stress on eye muscles while trying to focus on an object. It also causes blurred and dislocated vision. Diplopia This is the disorder of vision in which two images of a single object are seen. Lazy Eye (Amblyopia) This is a condition among children that should be treated before the age of 6 and 7, otherwise it may lead to permanent impairment of vision. It is often caused when one eye turns in and out while the other sees straight, so that a double image is sent to the brain. The child solves this confusion by ignoring the message from one eye, thus gradually weakening it through disuse. The usual treatment is patching the good eye in order to force the use of weaker eye. Night Blindness The inability to see at night is called night blindness. The main cause of this is lack at balanced diet (deficiency of vitamin A). 75 Colour Blindness Similarly the inability to identify the distinctiveness of different colours is called colour amdness. Other Common Diseases of the Eyes are : Conjunctivitis (pink eye), retinitis, optic neuritis, dry eyes, optic atrophy (degeneration of optic nerve), blepharitis (inflammation of eyelids and especially of their margins), watery eyes, squint (to be cross eyed), ptosis (drooping of upper eyelid), iritis (inflammation of the iris), stye (swelling of sebaceous gland at the margin of eyelid), trachoma, photo-phobia etc. Causes Stress of too much close vision work, diabetes, irregular and insufficient sleep, deficiency of vitamin A, watching TV from close distance, living in dim-lit areas and industrial work hazards are the main causes of eye related diseases. However hereditary disease and infections can also lead to diseases of the eyes. Besides refractive errors, accidents are a common cause of impaired vision. Negligence is the most common reason for eye accidents and can result from sharp edged toys, blades, sticks, arrows, crackers etc. Surmas and kajals prescribed by quacks are a common source of infection for the eye. Computer usage in children Twenty years ago, most children played outside in the open and there was no stress on near vision. Today much has changed. Most children work at a computer either at home or in school each day. Sitting in front of, and staring at a computer screen is causing vision problems that were not known some years ago.

Computer use demands fine motor skills from young eyes that are not well developed yet. Sitting for hours in front of a computer screen stresses the child's eyes because the computer forces the child's vision system to focus and strain a lot more than any other task.

To reduce the risk of eye strain :

• Restrict computer usage in very young children.
• Tilt the screen slightly backward at an angle of 15°.
• The recommended distance between the monitor and eyes for children is 18-28 inches.
• Consult your doctor if your child complains of blurred vision and headache, because he might have an underlying eye problem.

Prevention

• Have your eyes checked Regardless of how well you see, have your eyes checked regularly.
• Control chronic health conditions Certain conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure can affect your vision.
• Recognise symptoms Sudden loss of vision in one eye, sudden hazy or blurred vision, flashes of light, black spots, halos or rainbows around lights may signal a serious medical problem such as acute glaucoma, stroke or retinal detachment.
• Protect your eyes from sun Wear sunglasses that block UV (ultraviolet radiation). This is especially important if you spend long hours in sun.
• Eat healthy foods Maintain healthy diet that consists of plenty of fruits and 77 vegetables. Foods rich in vitamin A and C are beneficial for eyes. Vitamin A prevents night blindness. The deficiency of vitamin A contributes to blindness by making the cornea very dry and damaging the retina. Vitamin A is found in animal sources such as liver, eggs and dairy products such as cheese, butter etc. Plant sources include carrots, mango, green leafy vegetables, pumpkin, spinach, apricots, sweet potato etc. Recommended daily allowance for vitamin A in adults is 3000 IU (900ug/day). Vitamin A isn't the only antioxidant your eyes need. Another important vitamin is vitamin C. Studies suggest that high levels of vitamin C can reduce the risk of cataract which is caused by buildup of proteins that result in cloudy vision. Antioxidant vitamins C and E also play a role in delaying age related macular degeneration which currently has no cure. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin C is 60 mg for both males and females. Green leafy vegetables and fruits especially citrus fruits are rich in vitamin C. As with vitamin A, foods with vitamin Care better fresh than frozen or canned, as either process can deplete the amount of vitamin.

• Use right glasses The right glasses optimize the vision.
• Use good lighting To save your eyes from unnecessary stress while reading, you must have sufficient light coming from left and behind. Indirect lighting is easier on the eyes than a bright beam concentrated on what you are reading. Also avoid reading in moving trains and buses. Do not read while lying down or in a dim or flickering light. Books and 78 magazines with very fine prints are known to cause eye strain. While reading or doing work that is close to the eyes, you must rest your eyes frequently either by closing them or by looking at a distant object preferably at greenery.
• Wash eyes
Wash eyes at least 2-3 times a day with water. Use clean and separate towels to wipe your face and eyes. Never touch the eyes with anything unclean and rough. Regular morning walk is useful to keep the eyes healthy. Rose water too is beneficial for eyes but care should be taken that it is pure. Head and body massage can also help. In case of any problem in your eye, avoid self medication. Consult a doctor. Reflexology Treatment Reflexology can stimulate the eyes to stay healthy and resist infections and alleviate many eye problems. Since there are two eyes, the reflex points can be found on the palms of both hands and soles of both feet. The points on the left hand & foot correspond to the left eye, and the points on the right hand & foot correspond to the right eye. One cannot predict with certainty that a specific disease will be cured in a certain time period but positive results follow within 10-15 days of Reflexology treatment. Results may vary from person to person even if the disease is the same. Therefore, patience is required to get the desired results.

Principal Reflex Centres Related to the Eye

Principal reflex centres related to eye are present at the base of index and middle fingers, where the fingers meet the 79 palm and sole (in both feet and hands) as shown in 48 & 49. It is best to work on both eyes rather than concentrating on only one of them in a session.

Fig. 50 and 51 clearly show the manner in which pressure is to be applied. Any rubber or wooden instrument designed specifically for the purpose can also be used. Note carefully any tenderness while exerting pressure on reflex points. Detailed description about the pressure technique is given in chapter 1.

Secondary Reflex Centres Related to the Eye

There are many other reflex centres helpful in curing eye diseases. By applying pressure on these secondary reflex centres along with principal reflex centres, many diseases can be cured in a short span of time. Eyes and brain have a significant relation with each other. Therefore, pressure must be applied on the finger tips of both hands and feet (reflex points of brain) as shown in fig. 52 & 53. It must be noted that upper portion of the neck nourishes 80 the eyes. Therefore, pressure is applied at the outer, inner and upper portions of both toes and thumbs feet and hands respectively, as these represent reflex centres of the neck. The location of reflex points and techniques of pressure application is shown in fig. 54, 55, 56&57.

Reach both of your hands behind your head to the base of your skull (Fig. 59). With the thumbs, locate the slight indentation at the top of the neck, just below the base of skull. These reflex centers are important in stimulating circulation to the head and brain. Apply pressure on points 1-7 shown in fig. 58 for 2-3 seconds. Pause. Repeat the pressure. Many eyes diseases can be cured by applying pressure or massaging the first two ringers on both hands (fig. 60). The method of applying pressure is shown in fig. 61.

Other reflex centres related to eyes are on the triangular part formed between the thumb and index finger on both hands as shown in fig. 62. It lies below the point when thumb and index finger meet each other. In case of headache, instant relief can be fel1 by applying pressure on these points on both hands. The method of applying pressure is shown in fig. 63.



Reflex centres related to eyes are located on feet as well. First centre lies on the first-channel (ditch between tendons) of 82 each foot at a distance of an inch from the base of roe whereas the second centre lies on that central part where leg and feet meet each other (fig. 64). The second reflex centre is also particularly beneficial for those suffering from asthma and other diseases of respiratory system. The duration of pressure application is 10-15 seconds.

There are three important eye related reflex centres on the lower part of the ear lobe. In case of any eye disease, pressure should be applied on these centres. Fig. 65 shows the location and method of pressure application on these centres. Massage the point in small circular movements. Be careful to move only the finger, not the ear. Place your thumbs on the lower edge of the upper ridges of the eye sockets, as close to the nose as possible (fig. 66). Give light pressure on the inner edge of the socket for 3 seconds. Move your thumbs out toward the side of face. Repeat the light pressure on the inner edge of the sockets. Go back to the inside corner of the eyes and repeat the sequence (fig. 67 & 68).

Place your index finger on the small recess about two finger widths beyond the outside corner of the eye and a little above it (fig. 69). It is important reflex centre for diplopia. Give moderate pressure for 3 seconds. This reflex centre can sometimes be intensly painful, so it is advisable to do it gently. There are reflex centres near the inner corner of the eyes. Applying pressure on these points is beneficial in case of many eye related diseases. The location of reflex centres and method of pressure application is shown in fig. 70 and 71, respectively.

Palming is a very good exercise for curing eye pain, heaviness and other diseases of the eyes. Covering eyes closely with palms without applying pressure on them is called palming. Palming should be done for 5 to 10 minutes everyday. While doing the exercise visualize only black colour in front of your eyes.

In case of colour blindness and atrophy of the optic nerve, pressure must be applied on reflex centres related to kidneys and nervous system along with reflex points related to the eye. Liver, lymphatic system and spleen play an important role in protecting the eyes from infections and maintaining good eyesight. Liver stores and suppies vitamin A to different parts of the body which helps in maintaining good night vision. Lymphatic system keeps the cornea clean. Spleen produces various antibodies to prevent infections of the eye. Therefore, pressure must be applied to reflex centres related to liver, lymphatic system and spleen as shown in fig. 7, 9 and 64. (For detailed description about time and method of pressure application, please see chapter 1). As far as cataract is concerned, the general perception is that it cannot be cured and surgery is the only remedy. But it is not so. If detected early, Reflexology can cure cataract completely. In case of post- operative reddening of eyes, pressure should be applied on all eye related reflex centres on feet. It is advisable to give gentle pressure. Several patients have reported to me successful curing of cataract in early stages. However, if cataract is in an advanced stage, surgery is inevitable.

Better Sight Without Glasses

Improving poor eyesight is a process which requires a lot of patience and time. However, it can be successfully done following the fore-mentioned Reflexology techniques. Here, the important factors to be considered are the power of the spectacles, diet, reading-writing hours, sleeping hours, TV viewing hours, distance maintained from TV, atmosphere of the home (if the patient is suffering from tension) or if the parents too wear spectacles (hereditary causes). 85 In addition to Reflexology and proper nutrition, honey is also useful. In case of near and far sightedness, the following mix of natural products is useful and can give positive results. Take 3 parts honey, 1 part lemon juice, 1 part onion juice and 1 part ginger juice. Mix properly and sieve through a fine muslin cloth and pour in a clear sterile glass bottle. You can add a few drops of rose water to this mixture. Rose water is easily available with chemists. Take care that it should be absolutely clean. Put two to three drops of this mixture in your eyes twice daily. If it stings your eyes, add a little more of honey. You can store this mixture for 8-10 days. Make it fresh again. Early stage of cataract can be cured using this mixture. If you feel heaviness in the eyes or suffer headache, discontinue using the mixture. Stick to the Reflexology treatment only.

3. Ear

The ear has two important roles. It is our organ of hearing and organ of balance. Ear is made up of three different parts.
• Outer Ear This forms the visible part. Its shape helps to collect sound waves.
• Middle Ear Separated from the outer ear by eardrum, the middle ear consists of tiny bones. These amplify the sound waves.
• Inner Ear Here sound waves are changed into electrical impulses and sent to the brain. The electrical impulses are carried by the auditory nerve. The brain then translates these electrical impulses as sound.

Sense of balance
Inside the inner ear is a series of canals filled with fluid. These canals are positioned at different angles. When the head is moved, the rolling of the fluid inside the canals tells the brain how far, how fast and in what direction head is moving. The brain coordinates this information with information from your eyes and from the muscles (called muscle sense or kinaesthesia). The brain uses the inner ear, the eyes and muscles to pinpoint the position of the body at all times.

Common diseases of the ear Deafness, tinnitus (sensation of ringing sound in the ears), vertigo, wax and motion sickness Hearing Loss or Deafness Hearing loss or deafness is a partial or total inability to hear sound in one or both the ears. In adults, the most common 87 cause of hearing loss is prolonged exposure to loud noise. Excessive noise levels over a long period of time will damage your hearing. The loudness of the noise is measured in decibles (db). Sensitivity of the sound differs from one individual to another, but experts believe that damage to hearing occurs when noise levels are higher then 85 db.

Relative magnitude of common sounds:
• Human breathing at 3 metres : 10 db
• Whispering : 20 db
• Inside Office or restaurant / Normal conversation : 60 db
• Busy traffic : 70 db
• Food blender / Vacuum cleaner at 1 metre : 80 db
• Inside discotheque : 100 db
• Gun shot fired at 1 metre : 140 db

For most cases of noise induced hearing loss, there is no cure. Hearing aids only amplify sounds and cannot replace normal hearing. One's hearing gradually becomes less acute as we age. This is normal and rarely leads to deafness. Age related hearing loss typically begins with loss of higher frequencies so that certain speech sounds such as s, f, t end up sounding very similar. This means that older person can hear, but not always understand.

Other causes of hearing loss include:
• Ear wax build up or an object in the ear • Ototoxic medicines : Certain drugs are known to be toxic to ears. These are amino-glycosides (streptomycin, gentamycin) and drugs for malaria (quinine and chloroquine).
• Diseases: 88 Viral infections e.g. mumps, measles, pertussis (whooping cough) and rubella (German measles) can cause hearing loss. These types of infections are more common in childhood. Bacterial diseases such as meningitis and syphilis can also target and harm the ears.
• Injury to the head or ear can cause hearing loss.
• Ear infection such as middle ear infection (otitis media) or infection of the ear canal (otitis externa). Ear infection is very common in children and can cause considerable pain. The outer ear can easily pick up infection while swimming, particularly in unclean water. The middle ear can get infected as a result of upper respiratory tract infection-cold or flu.
• Decreased blood flow to the inner ear or parts of the brain that control hearing may lead to its loss. This may be caused by heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure or diabetes.
• Tinnitus is often associated with deafness.

Prevention
1. Don't try to clean your ear by poking anything into it. It may injure the delicate skin or impact earwax. Ear produces wax (cerumen) to protect itself. Wax and tiny hair inside the canal prevent small objects getting down inside the ear. Ear has a clever mechanism for clearing itself. There is a natural movement of wax and dirt away from the ear drum. All you need to clean the ears is to wipe around the outside of the ear with a damp cloth. Ear buds are unnecessary, rather can be harmful as they can push wax towards the ear drum.
2. Avoid swimming in dirty water.
3. Reduce exposure to excessive noise in the workplace. Use personal hearing protection such as ear plugs.
4. Do not self-medicate especially with antibiotics.
5. Reduce the risk of ear infections by treating upper respiratory tract infections promptly.

Tinnitus

Tinnitus is defined as a sensation of a sound in ear or head not due to a source outside the body. It may be a buzzing, ringing, roaring, whistling or a hissing sound. Sometimes it involves more complex sounds that vary over time. It may be there all the time, or come and go. An associated hearing loss is usually present. Unfortunately, in most cases, no underlying cause can be detected. A wide variety of treatments have been tried. These include masking the bothersome sound by continuous playing of more acceptable sounds (white noise), hypnotherapy, counselling and use of hearing aids.

Vertigo

Vertigo is a false sense that either you or your surroundings are spinning around. Vertigo often causes loss of balance. It is a common symptom of inner ear disorder, which is where the organs of balance are situated. Osteoarthritis of the neck, which is very common in older people, can squeeze the major arteries to the brain in certain neck positions. The resulting fall in blood flow causes dizziness. Vertigo may accompany an ear infection or congestion of the ear.

Modem Sickness

Motion sickness is the unpleasant sensation of nausea and dizziness that some people experience when riding in a moving vehicle. Motion sickness can be brought about on by travelling in cars, ships, airplanes, trains, by riding amusement rides that 90 spin and even when using a swing at a playground. Our primary sense of balance is a series of fluid filled canals inside the inner ear. Motion sickness may occur when the fluids in the semicircular canals are in a sustained state of turbulence. Symptoms can range from mild to serious. Frequent vomiting can lead to dehydration and low blood pressure, so it is important to seek prompt medical attention if you are severely affected.

Reflexology Treatment

Reflexology can stimulate the ears to maintain their health and cure many ear related diseases and in some cases, can alleviate motion sickness. Since there are two ears, the reflex points are located on the palms of both hands and the soles of both feet.

Principal Reflex Centres Related to the Ears
The principal reflex centres related to the ears are located on the base of fourth and fifth fingers on the palm and sole (fig. 73 & 75) of both hands and feet. The method of applying pressure is shown in fig. 74 and fig. 76. Pressure can also be applied with a 91 rubber or a wooden instrument. For detailed description on the method of pressure application please refer to chapter 1.

Secondary Reflex Centres

Apart from the above mentioned reflex centres, there are a few other important reflex centres. Applying pressure on all or some of the secondary reflex centres is helpful in speedy recovery from ear diseases. Neck nourishes the entire head. Therefore, it is necessary to apply pressure on all reflex centres related to neck. These centres are located on the inner and outer parts of the toes and thumbs of feet and hands (fig. 77). The method of pressure application is shown in fig. 78, 79 & 80,

Another important reflex centre to cure ear related diseases is the area on the bad of neck where head meets the neck (fig. 81, pt. 1 to 7) and on the neck midway between pts 1-2 and 3-4. 92 You can easily put your hands behind and give pressure with the thumb (fig. 82). At each reflex point, pressure is to be given for 23 seconds. Repeat this twice Massaging and giving pressure on the ring and the little finger of both the hands is very helpful in curing ear ailments (fig. 83). The method of giving pressure at these areas is given in fig. 84.

4. Nose

The nose is the main entrance to the respiratory system. The air we breathe is processed by the nose before it enters the lungs. Nose is an air conditioner of the body responsible for warming and saturating air before it reaches the lungs, removing bacteria and particulate debris as well conserving heat and moisture from expired air. Nasal breathing is important for normal lung function. The nose is also of course the main organ of smell. The sense of smell is provided by cells in the roof of nose which respond to just a few molecules in air. The resulting nerve impulses go straight for analysis, to a part of the brain which is also involved with mood and emotion, which explains why smells have such an evocative or disturbing effect. The nasal passage is not a simple tube. Pairs of air filled cavities (the sinuses) branch from it into the bones of skull at various points. There are three main sinuses: the maxillary in the cheek bones, the frontal sinus above the eyes and the ethnocide behind the bridge of nose. The function of sinuses is to make the skull lighter and to add resonance to the voice. The lining of the sinuses produce a mucous secretion which carries away any infection and dust that have penetrated the sinuses. A few of the common diseases affecting the nose are common cold, sinusitis (acute and chronic), epistaxis and hay fever (allergic rhinitis).

Common Cold
Many micro-organisms are part of the normal flora of the upper respiratory tract. When a person is healthy, these germs are harmless. But when immunity is lowered due to some 96 reason; these micro-organisms can cause a disease. A person suffering from common cold experiences symptoms like shivering, sneezing, redness of nose and eyes, headache, running nose, watering of the eyes and thirst. Some may even experience pain in the neck and throat. As the disease progresses and becomes chronic, it can lead to bronchitis, asthma and pneumonia.

Sinusitis

Sinusitis is an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the sinuses resulting from bacterial or viral infection. In case of acute sinusitis, a few days after cold, pain increases over one of the sinuses, most often the maxillary sinus. Pressure is felt in the skull which results in aching teeth and pain behind the eyes. Often pain of sinusitis is confused with toothache. On bending forward, you feel a rush of fluid within the sinus along with increased pain. The nasal discharge becomes particularly offensive and yellow and drips down the back of nose to the throat, creating a foul taste and bad breath. Other symptoms are lethargy, swelling around the eyes and in a few cases vomiting. In chronic sinusitis, there is persistent nasal obstruction and discharge of infected mucous, in addition to the pressure symptoms mentioned above. The sinuses do not begin to form until about five years of age and are not fully formed until about twelve. Thus, sinusitis is impossible below the age of five and unusual before the age of twelve.

Epistaxis

Several arteries run very close to the surface near the front of the nose and bleed readily if irritated through inflammation or 97 trauma, typically when having cold or picking at the nose. Nose bleeds are more common in children and in the elderly. The majority of nose bleeds are otherwise merely inconvenient rather than dangerous. Every adult with a nose bleed without any obvious cause should have his blood pressure checked. Although, in fact, most people with high blood pressure do not get nose bleeds. People who have profuse or recurrent nose bleeds should be tested to ensure their blood is clotting normally.

Hay Fever (Allergic Rhinitis)

Hay fever is a common name given to an allergic response to specific substances in the environment. It is usually seen during the spring season, when the pollen of trees, grass and weeds act as an allergen. The pollen is spread by the wind. Even though pollen is usually invisible in the air, it is a potent stimulator of allergy. Pollen lodges in the nasal lining tissues (mucous membranes) and other parts of the respiratory tract where it induces an allergic reaction. Many people are allergic to other substances such as mould spores, dust mites and animal protein. Food is an uncommon cause of hay fever. Symptoms of hay fever include nasal congestion, a runny nose, eye and nose itching, sneezing and post-nasal dripping of clear mucous frequently causing cough. Loss of smell is common and loss of taste occurs occasionally. Nose bleeding may occur if the condition is severe. The allergic symptoms often interfere with one's quality of life and total health. Hay fever can cause sleeplessness, fatigue and irritability and increase the risk of developing into a more serious condition such as asthma or eczema

Reflexology Treatment

The Reflexology treatment of sinuses achieves two aims. The first is preventive; stimulation can help keep the mucous membrane of the sinuses healthy and can encourage them to drain accumulated debris regularly. The second is curative; Reflexology has been known to cure cases of sinusitis, unblocking clogged air passages and relieving the accompanying headaches.

Principal Reflex Centres Related to the Nose

The reflex centres related to sinuses are located on the tips of all the fingers of the hands and feet. Location of reflex centres and the method of pressure application is shown in fig. 93. Other reflex centres related to sinuses are located on the upper portion of all the fingers of hands and feet. Pressure should be applied with thumb in the manner shown in fig. 94.

Secondary Reflex Centres

In addition to the above mentioned points, pressure should be given on the reflex points related to pituitary gland, adrenal gland, lymphatic system, nervous system and centres related to the cervical vertebrae. Pressure should be given along the outer and inner surfaces of the thumbs of both application is shown in fig. 95, 96, 97 and 98

An important centre related to sinusitis and epistaxis is located on the nape of the neck at the mid-point on the junction line between the head and neck. Press the 1.1 shown in fig. 99 with the thumb for 2 -3 seconds thrice. Pressure given should be in accordance with the patient's tolerance as shown in fig. 100. Later apply pressure 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 for 2-3 seconds.

On the neck, apply pressure thrice on either side of the vertebral column (½ inch from the column) at points 1 to 12 as shown in fig. 99 & 101. Patient can either do this himself (fig. 100 102) or can take the help of a therapist.

Another important point for common cold and sinuses and especially for epistaxis is located on the lower outer edge of the nostrils. Location of these points and the method of pressure application is shown in fig. 103 & 104.
 

In addition to these, pressure should be applied on the crease between the thumb and the index finger of both the hands (fig. 111 & fig. 112). This reflex centre is related to eyes. ears and other organs. Reflex centres related to ailments of the nose are also present on the face as shown in fig. 15 (pt. 2, 4, 8, 9, 13, 14) and fig. 16 (pt. 3,11 & 21). To reduce the intensity of various nasal ailments, apply pressure on all the channels on the hand and feet (fig. 105 & 106).

Use of magic massager is advisable to apply pressure on the hands especially the fingers and thumbs (fig. 10 7). Common symptom of cold and sinusitis is heaviness of the head due to congestion. Locate the slight recesses at the temples with both hands simultaneously; give moderate pressure for 3 seconds. Pause. Repeat the pressure (Fig.108).

If common cold leads to asthma or chest pain then pressure should be applied at all he reflex centres related to the respiratory system as shown in chapter 10 and on the sack on either side of the back bone. In case of shivering, apply pressure on the bony repression behind the ear (fig. 91). Many people think that vitamin C helps prevent the common cold. Despite exhaustive research across the world, there is no clear evidence that large doses of vitamin C (or any other vitamin) will prevent or cure colds. You also need to consider the health risks associated with taking large doses of vitamin C. Large doses may cause nausea, abdominal cramps, headaches, fatigue, kidney stones and diarrhoea. Do not selfmedicate. Consult your physician.

Epistaxis

The first-aid treatment for epistaxis is to pinch the soft part of the nose, hard enough to close the blood vessel for about 10 102 minutes. The patient should tilt his head back or if he wants to lie down, head should be raised. Make the patient comfortable. An ice packheld over the nose helps in reducing the bleeding. A profuse nose bleed will require the nose to be packed tightly with a long ribbon of gauge to put pressure on blood vessels. It is removed after 48 hours. For nose bleeds apply pressure on the back of the neck (fig. 99, pt. 1) and also on the lower part of the nose (fig. 103 & 104). Apply pressure on the tips of fingers and toes of hands and feet (fig. 93). Pressure should also be applied on reflex centres of adrenal glands. In all the disease conditions of the nose, pressure should be applied along the thumbs of both the hands and feet (fig. 95, 96, 97 & 98). In addition to the reflex centres shown in fig. 99, 103 and 104, apply pressure on reflex centres located just below and on sides of thumb (fig. 110) and on the crease between the thumb and the index finger of both the hands (fig. Ill and 112). Also, press reflex centre located right in the middle of the head for 2-3 seconds (fig. 109).

Hay Fever

In hay fever, over the counter medication may be enough to manage acute symptoms but it provides only symptomatic relief. For complete cure, Reflexology is helpful as improves the functioning of immune system thereby increasing the body's resistance infection. Pressure must be applied on all the reflex points (fig. 93- 112) daily. In addition, apply pressure on reflex centres of kidneys and intestines. Acute condition may take 15-20 days to recover though chronic conditions may take a bit longer.

5. Mouth and Throat

The throat is a multipurpose tube leading from the back of the nose and mouth down to the trachea (wind pipe) and oesophagus (food pipe). When we breathe, air passes through the throat into the trachea on its way to the lungs. When we swallow, the food slips down the oesophagus on the way to the stomach. Like the rest of the respiratory system, the throat is chiefly at risk from infection.

Tonsillitis

The two tonsils at the back of the throat are part of the ring of lymph glands that guard the entrance to respiratory and digestive system. Very small at birth, they enlarge gradually, reaching their maximum size at age of 6-7 years. Thereafter they shrink in size but do not disappear. Tonsillitis is an acute viral or bacterial infection of tonsils, sometimes causing them to become abnormally swollen as well as inflamed. It occurs mainly in school-age children and occasionally in adolescents. The illness starts suddenly with sore throat and difficulty in swallowing. Within a few hours, the child becomes feverish and may seem quite ill. The painful irritation in the throat makes some children vomit or cough. Glands on either side of the neck and the angle of the jaw may swell and become tender They can be felt as small protuberances. Surgery was done frequently in the past but most doctors nowadays recommend it only as the last resort. If the attacks of tonsillitis are so severe and frequent that they affect general health, the surgical removal of the tonsils may be the only answer.

Adenoids

Adenoids are two glandular swellings at the back of the nose, above the tonsils and found almost exclusively in the preadolescent children. They also assist the body's defenses against respiratory tract infections. 105 Normally, adenoids begin to enlarge at about the age of three. From age five, they begin to get smaller and then disappear at puberty. In some children, they grow even larger from the age of five and eventually obstruct the airway from nose to the throat or block the opening of eustachian tube from middle ear into the throat. If the airway from the nose is blocked, the child breathes mainly through the mouth, snores when asleep and is likely to speak with a nasal twang. The infection may also spread along the tube to the middle ear and partial deafness may result.

 -Reflexology Treatment Principal Reflex Centres
Tonsilitis, enlargement of adenoids, goitre and other diseases of the throat can be cured by Reflexology. There are three main points located on hands and feet. First point is located at the junction of the thumb and first finger (fig. 113). Second point is located at the junction of the toe and foot and thumbs and palm (fig. 114). Correct way of applying pressure is shown in fig. 115.


Third point is located at the junction of thumb and first finger on upper part of both hands and feet as shown in fig 116.

 -Secondary Reflex Centres

A few secondary reflex centres are located on neck, hands and feet. In disease condition, pressure may be applied on all or some of these points. Pressure must be applied on the points related to the nervous system i.e. on the outer and inner surfaces of thumbs of both hands and feet (fig. 117, 96, 97 and 98). Other points are located on the back of the neck at the junction line of head and neck as shown in fig. 99, 100, 101 and 102. In case of tonsillitis, pressure should be applied in the hollow at the base of throat with the help of finger for a few seconds (fig. 118). Also, apply pressure on the upper back along the back bone (fig. 160).

Toothache

Pain is always a signal to us that something is amiss somewhere. A toothache should alert you to immediately get in touch with your dentist and have the tooth examined and treated. Reflexology cannot cure a bad tooth. But it can greatly reduce the pain that derives from a bad tooth. We strongly 107 recommend that you see your dentist even if the pain is entirely eliminated. A very important reflex centre to get relief from toothache is located on the fourth channel of hands and feet. Location of the channel and method of pressure application is shown in fig. 119,120.

Now using thumbs apply pressure to the point located between the second and third toe of each foot (fig. 121), on the middle of the leg at the junction of the foot and leg (fig. 122), on the first finger next to big toe (fig. 123) and on Wrist in line with the little finger (fig. 124). In addition pressure should be applied on reflex centres on the face (fig. 15 point 12, fig. 16 point 9,13,16&17) and on the temples (fig. 108).

Pressure should be applied on the tips on the fingers of the hands and feet of the affected side for 3-5 minutes. Similarly, pressure can be applied on the jaw at the affected site. Applying 108 pressure on the web between the thumb and index finger helps in getting relief from pain (fig. 111 & 112). In addition to all the above mentioned points, pressure must be applied on the reflex centres related to nervous system and on the back of the neck (fig. 99 to 102).

 -Dryness of the Mouth
This is seen usually as a result of any disorder of the liver. In this condition, pressure should be applied on the reflex centres of the liver, located on hands and feet (fig. 9).

6. Back, Neck and Shoulder Pain

A fit back is strong and resilient, capable of absorbing a multitude of shocks everyday and of supporting loads far greater than body weight. Yet, back pain is one of humanity's most frequent complaints. Eight out of ten people, including those who are generally fit, experience some type of back pain during their lives. Before we understand how Reflexology can cure various ailments related to back, it is necessary to understand the structure of back, how it is related to different parts of our body and the symptoms and causes related to neck, shoulder and backache.

 -Structure of the Back
The back is a complex structure, made up of many components. At its core is the spine on which the stability of the back depends. Many, though not all of the problems, that we experience in our backs, are due to disorders of the spine. The back consists of a scaffolding of bones, joints and ligaments, surrounded by muscles which serve both to move the spine and to support it and give it integrity. There are also numerous blood vessels and nerves.

 -The Spine
The spine comprises a column of 26 bones, the vertebrae, stacked on top of one another like a pile of coins. Between each vertebrae are spongy, tough cushions called discs that act as shock absorbers and give the spine its flexibility. The vertebrae are grouped in five regions. At the top is the cervical or neck region, made up of seven vertebrae. Below this is the thoracic or chest region, with 12 vertebrae, each of which 110 has a pair of ribs attached to it. Next there is the lumbar or lower back region, with five vertebrae. It is the lumbar part, where back pain strikes more often. This is because the lower part of the back bears the entire weight of the upper body plus any weight that the person is carrying. It also twists and bends more than the upper part of the back. Beneath the lumbar region is sacrum, made up of five fused vertebrae and forming the back of pelvis. Finally there is the coccyx, a vestigeal tail attached to the bottom of sacrum and made up of four small vertebrae fused together. For convenience, each of the five regions is identified by a letter and the vertebrae within each region by numbers: C1-C7, T1- T12, L1-L5, S & CO. The normal spine has a gentle curve that gives it an Sshape, which makes it more shock resistant. The cervical region curves anteriorly, the thoracic region curves posteriorly, the lumbar region curves anteriorly and the sacral and coccygeal regions together curve posteriorly.

 -The Spinal Cord and Nerves
A very important function of the spine is to protect the spinal cord. The spinal cord is in effect a projection downward from the brain, and like the brain, it contains numerous nerve pathway and nerve cells. The spinal cord runs from the base of the skull and reaches as low as the upper border of first lumbar vertebrae in the adults. Thirty one pairs of spinal nerves emerge from the gap between the two adjacent vertebrae and connect brain with rest of the body. Through these spinal nerves, the spinal cord is connected to the rest of the body and via these nerves, the spinal cord sends and receives information to and from the brain. Acupuncture and Reflexology recognised this direct relationship between the spine and internal organs. Thus by treating the reflex centres related to spine, one can influence specific organ functions.

 -Body Parts Related to Different Parts of the Spine 7 cervical vertebrae
1. Skull, mouth, brain, ears, blood supply to head
2. Sinuses, eyes, forehead, tongue, blood supply of eyes
3. Cheeks, teeth, outer ear, facial bones
4. Mouth, lips, nose, eustachian tube
5. Vocal cords, pharynx
6. Throat muscles, tonsils, shoulders
7. Thyroid, elbow, lymph glands

 -12 thoracic vertebrae
1. Trachea, oesophagus, right hand and forearm
2. Heart valves
3. Chest, lungs, breast, trachea
4. Gallbladder
5. Liver, blood, solar plexus
6. Stomach
7. Duodenum, pancreas
8. Spleen, diaphragm
9. Adrenal glands
10. Kidney
11. Ureters
12. Small intestines, fallopian tubes

 -5 lumbar vertebrae
1. Large intestine
2. Abdomen, appendix, thigh
3. Reproductive organs, knee
4. Prostate gland, sciatic nerve, muscles of lower back
5. Legs, ankle and feet

 -5 fused sacral vertebrae:
1. Hips

4 fused coccygeal vertebrae:
1. Rectum
2. Anus

It is important to note that if there is a deformation in the backbone or spine cord, then it can affect those body parts that are related to it. Therefore, it is necessary to note that when we are applying pressure on reflex centres of a particular body part, we must also apply pressure on reflex centres related to backbone and spinal cord on hands and feet. Because there is every possibility of the root cause being in the backbone or spinal cord.

 -Causes of Back Pain
There are many possible causes of back pain. Any structure in the back has the potential to cause pain if affected by injury or disease. Pain may result from:
1. Bad posture over a long time
2. Disease: Degeneration of spine such as that seen in arthritis, disc diseases and osteoporosis.
3. A sprain or strain of the joints or muscles of the back
4. Pregnancy
5. Stress
6. Lack of exercise
7. Poor muscle tone
8. Obesity
9. Ageing

1. Postural stress- Poor posture over an extended period of time places stress on all the structures of the spine. Ligaments and joints are overstretched, muscles are over worked and may spasm and nerves may be compressed in some positions.
2. Disease -Back problems are more likely caused by lifestyle factors such as inactivity than by serious disease. However, some of the diseases that can affect the spine include:

 -Spondylosis
It is hardening and stiffening of the spinal column that results in a loss of flexibility. It is due to the degenerative changes in the spine that often come with ageing. These changes with age are also referred to as wear and tear. It is important to 114 realize that spondylosis does not necessarily produce much pain and clearly there is no close connection between the severity of the changes as seen on X-ray and any symptoms there may be. You may have a lot of changes and little or no pain or a few changes and a lot of pain. Spondybsis or wear and tear is not a disease in itself. Changes in the structure and function of the spine are inevitable as we age but the degree to which they give rise to symptoms is variable and unpredictable. On X-ray, some people have evidence of osteophytes, which are outgrowths of bony tissue at the margins of vertebral bodies. Although they look dramatic they do not cause pain unless they happen to compress a nerve root. In fact, by limiting spinal movement, they may actually be protective to the spine. The rate at which spondylosis progresses is variable. Some people show changes sooner than others. They may occur even in the twenties, although symptoms generally appear a decade or two later. Partly this is a question of heredity. Occupation also plays a part. Heavy labour work causes osteoarthritic changes to appear in spine.

 -Spondylolisthesis
This condition occurs when one vertebrae in the spinal column slips forward over another.
 -Osteoporosis
A disease characterised by thinning of the bones. It commonly occurs in women after the menopause but also affects men with increasing age. It is discussed in chapter 14.
 -Spinal Stenosis
This condition OCCUYS when the space around spinal cord and nerve roots narrows due to arthritis and bone overgrowth.

 -Structural problems
Kyphosis is an excessive outward curve of the upper back, which is sometimes referred to as a hunchback. Scoliosis is an excessive sideways curve that can affect either the upper or lower regions of the spine. Causes of Kyphosis and Scoliosis include birth defects, bad posture and certain diseases that affect the integrity of the bones, such as osteoporosis.
-Sciatica
Sciatica is a nerve pain arising from the sciatic nerve that runs from the spine in to the buttock and down the back of the leg. The cause is usually a bulging or prolapsed disc pressing on the nerve. Sciatica is discussed in detail in Chapter 7.
-Slipped disc
In fact it is a misnomer, because there is no such thing as a slipped disc. Discs are firmly anchored between vertebrae and while they may be subject to considerable deformation, they cannot become dislodged. What is often referred to as slipped disc is actually a disc that has partially collapsed or ruptured as a result of degeneration a strain. When a disc ruptures, or heniates, the outer tissue of the disc tears, allowing the softer material to ozze into the spinal canal. This can lead to severe pain if the disc material presses on the nerve. A bulging pre-ruptured disc can cause the same sort of pain. Most disc problems arise from injury and might be caused by straining the back (such as when lifting) or excessive compression, which can happen after having poor posture for a long time.

Fortunately, disc problems account for only 5-10% of all back trouble and of this percentage, only a small minority require surgery. Up to 90% of those with disc problems respond to conservative treatment. Reflexology treatment allows the disc to heal by reducing inflammation and reabsorbing the extruded material responsible for pain.

3. Soft tissue injuries (Sprain and Strain) A sprain is a joint injury characterised by tearing of the ligaments, while a strain is an injury to muscle or tendons. Stretching a ligament or muscle too far or too quickly could result in a tear of the tissue. Excessive force and repetitive use may also damage muscles.

4. Pregnancy It is so common for women to get backache when pregnant that up to 50% will have it. The weight of the womb and its contents places extra strain on the back, forcing the woman to lean back. This increases the normal hollow in the lumbar region (lordosis). Backache usually decreases after delivery but not always and sometimes it comes on for the first time after baby is born. Epidural anesthesia is often blamed for post delivery backaches.
5. Stress One of the side effects of stress is increased muscle tension, which can lead to fatigue, stiff ness and localised pain. Constantly tight muscles can create postural imbalances that may cause misalignment of the spine.

Referred pain
Back pain is a symptom. Pain arising from other organs may be felt in the back. This is called referred pain. Many intra 117 abdominal disorders such as appendicitis, kidney diseases, pancreatic disorders, bladder infections, pelvic infections and ovarian disorders among others can cause pain referred to the back.

While it is rare, back pain can be a sign of serious medical problem.
• Back pain that occurs after accident / trauma should be promptly evaluated by a medical professional to check for fracture or other injury.
• Severe back pain (such as pain that is bad enough to interrupt sleep) that occurs with other signs of severe illness (eg. fever, unexplained weight loss) may also indicate serious underlying diseases such as cancer.
• Bladder or bowel incontinence along with back pain are potentially life threatening conditions and warrant immediate medical care.

Test
If the pain is severe and unresponsive to treatment, imaging tests may be needed. X-rays show the alignment of the bones and whether you have degenerative joint disease or fracture. X-ray images won't directly show problems with your spinal cord, muscles, fibrous tissues, nerve or discs. For conditions involving the soft tissues, a CT scan (Computed Tomography) or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) may be needed to make a diagnosis. MRI can produce very striking images of the interior of the body. This had made a dramatic difference to the diagnosis of back pain, but the very success of the technique has created its own issues of interpretation. Most people have some degree of abnormality on MRI scanning, but these may not be causing any symptoms, it is only the more severe abnormalities that are 118 significant in this way. MRI scans may show reduced spinal movements, wear and tear changes in the spine, osteoarthritis of facet joints or abnormalities of discs and even disc protrusions but these things seldom have any close relation to the symptoms the patients complain of. Also, severe symptoms can occur without any abnormalities showing up in investigations. What all this amounts to is that much skill and judgment is required to interpret the results of sophisticated tests that are available today, and it has to be accepted that, even with the help of these tests, an identifiable cause that can be remedied will not always be found.

Treatment
1. Keep moving A typical response to experiencing back pain is to take it easy- either staying in bed or at least stopping any activity that is strenuous. While this approach is understandable and may even be recommended in short term, when done for more than a day or two, it can actually undermine healing. Light activity speeds up healing and recovery. If your back hurts, stop the aggravating activities but try to keep up the activities that are not painful.
2. Belts / Brace / Corset Your doctor may prescribe a brace cushioned for your back. However, research studies are divided as whether back braces/belts relieve back strain. They can provide warmth, comfort and a degree of support to your back. But the back muscles may weaken with prolonged use of brace/belt. It is best to use a brace/belt only for short periods or during back straining exercises, if at all. The best brace or belt you can give yourself is your own muscle brace. You can build up your 119 muscle brace through back strengthening and stability exercises.

3. Give cold, then heat treatment Use cold treatment first. Immediately after the injury of your back, apply ice several times a day, for up to 20 minutes at a time. Put ice in a bag, and then wrap the bag in a cloth or towel to keep a thin barrier between the ice and your skin. After the acute pain subsides, apply heat from a heating pad or heat lamp to help loosen tight muscles. Limit each heat application to 20 minutes.
4. Surgery Surgery is rarely needed to treat back pain. Although surgical intervention is anathema to a vast majority of people, many patients (and even some doctors) have the notion that if the back pain gets bad enough, they can always resort to surgery. Nothing could be farther from truth. The amount of pain somebody is in, has very little to do with whether he or she could benefit from surgery. One British researcher has estimated mat for every 10,000 people who experience back pain, only four need surgery.

Reflexology Treatment

Principal Reflex Centres Related to Spine Principal reflex centres related to the vertebral column, spinal cord and the muscles of the back are located on the feet along its length starting from the thumb towards the heel (fig. 126 & 127). On the hands these reflex points are located along the outer side of the thumbs and palms and along the index finger as shown in fig. 128 & 129.

Pressure can be given on these points in all the disease conditions of back and vertebral column. Pressure can be given with the help of the thumb or rubber jimmy. The point which elicits pains on pressing is the relevant reflex centre. Neck (Cervical Region) & Shoulder Problems The neck is one of the regions of the spine that commonly gives rise to pain, probably because of its mobility and the fact that the head exerts a lot of leverage in the neck structures. Common disorders of neck region include
• Neck pain
• Shoulder pain, frozen shoulder and brachial neuritis
• Pain, stiffness or restricted movement of thumb 121
• Writer's cramp
• Tennis elbow
• Stiff neck (torticollis-wry neck)
• Vertigo (illusion of revolving motion, either of oneself or one's surroundings) Though these disorders produce significant degree of discomfort and pain, they can be easily treated with Reflexology treatment. Neck pain, stiffness of neck and vertigo can be cured in 7-15 days depending on the severity of the disease. Whereas shoulder pain, stiff shoulder and writer's cramp take a little longer.

1. Neck pain
Trauma, poor posture and degenerative diseases such as arthritis are the most common causes of neck pain. Cervical spondylosis It is a chronic degeneration of the cervical vertebrae and the inter-vertebral discs. Also known as cervical osteoarthritis, the condition usually appears in men and women older than 40 years of age and progresses with age. Neck pain and stiffness that gets progressively worse may be an indication of cervical spondylosis. The pain may range from mild to severe and debilitating. Other signs and symptoms may include:
 Neck pain that radiates to the shoulders and arms.
 Numbness or weakness in the arms, hands and fingers.
 Loss of balance.
 Headaches that radiate to the back of the head.
 Pressure on the spinal cord in the neck can cause symptoms including leg weakness and bladder disturbances.

 -Postural neck pain
As in the other regions of the spine, pain can arise as a result of poor posture. Common causes here include constantly keeping the head thrust forwards; for example, n front of computer screen and clamping the phone between the shoulder and neck. Whiplash injury A passenger in a motor vehicle in a rear-end collision may suffer from whiplash injury of the neck, where the impact forces the person's head back and then forward at a great -speed. This can overstretch the neck and upper back region, resulting in a strain or tear the supporting ligaments, muscles and discs. Seatbelts do not help to prevent this kind injury but properly adjusted head rests do. The common symptoms of a whiplash injury are pain, stiffness and headache. Recovery depends on the individual and extent of the injury, but can take atleast three weeks. Patients should avoid using a soft collar and should remain active and try to return to their usual activities.
 -Osteoporosis
Many older people, women especially, suffer from osteoporosis. Loss of calcium from ~-e bones makes them weak, and the vertebrae may collapse with a consequent increase in spinal curvature. The affected vertebrae may be painful. There may also be referred owing to pressure on the nerve roots.
-Anxiety/Depression Probably the commonest cause of neck pain is tension. The patient, who is often a women in middle age or younger, experiences ache in the neck, usually more on one side. The pain may radiate to the shoulder. Neck movements are usually 123 limited, and there is frequently tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles, which feel more tense than usual. The cause of this kind of pain is difficult to establish. Often, though not always, patients recognise that there is a definite correlation between their symptoms and their psychological state, which is frequently one of mild depression or anxiety.

2. Frozen shoulder
Frozen shoulder, also known as adhesive capsulitis, is a disorder characterised by pain and loss of motion or stiffness in the shoulder. It affects about 2% of the general population. It is more common in women between the ages of 40 - 70 years. The causes of frozen shoulder are not fully understood. It occurs more commonly in individuals with diabetes, affecting 10- 20% of these individuals. Other medical problems associated with increased risk of frozen shoulder include- hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, parkinsonism disease, rheumatoid arthritis and cardiac disease or surgery. Frozen shoulder can develop after a shoulder is injured or immobilised for a period of time. With frozen shoulder, the joint becomes so tight and stiff that it is nearly impossible to carry out simple movements, such as raising the arm. People complain that the stiffness and pain worsen at night. Pain due to frozen shoulder is usually dull or aching. It can worsen with attempted motion.

Physicians have described the normal course of a frozen shoulder as having 3 stages:
 -Stage One - It is the freezing or painful stage, which may last for six weeks to nine months. Patient has a slow onset of pain. As the pain worsens, the shoulder loses motion.
 -Stage two - The frozen or adhesive stage is marked by slow improvement in pain, but the stiffness remains. This stage 124 generally lasts four months to nine months.
 -Stage three - The thawing or recovery, during which the shoulder motion slowly returns toward normal. This generally lasts five months to 26 months. Maintaining as much range of motion as possible in your shoulder is important. Your physiotherapist can show you how to move your shoulder joint through comfortable range of motion phases to avoid further stiffening. Reflexology increases the circulation of blood and energy, reduces inflammation, pain and stimulates healing of damaged tissues.

3. Tennis elbow
Tennis elbow is a common term for a condition caused by overuse of arm and forearm muscles that result in elbow pain. You do not have to play tennis to get this, but the term came into use because it can be a significant problem for some tennis players. Tennis elbow is caused by either abrupt or subtle tearing of the muscle and tender area around the outside of elbow. Vow doctor may call this lateral epicondylitis. Symptoms include pain slowly increasing around the outside of elbow. Elbow is tender to touch and pain occurs on simple actions such as lifting up a cup of coffee. Another common term, Golfer's elbow refers to the same process occurring on the inside of the elbow.
4. Writer's Cramp
Writer's cramp develops with repeated hand or finger motion, such as writing or typing. Pain usually becomes more severe with ongoing use of the repeated motion. Writer's cramp may ease if the person takes frequent breaks from the repetitive motion. Other steps that may help are changing the motion or the writing or typing tool itself.

Reflexology Treatment
Principal Reflex Centres Related to Neck & Shoulder
The reflex centres related to neck are located on the thumbs of both hands and feet (fig. 130 & 131). The outer and the inner portion of thumb of left hand and foot correspond to the left part of the neck. The outer and inner portion of thumb of right hand and foot corresponds to the right part of the neck. The upper portion of thumbs corresponds to upper part of the neck and the lower portion of thumb (fig. 136 pt. 4) corresponds to lower part of the neck.

Keeping this in mind, pressure can be given accordingly. Pressure can be given using the thumb or any soft rounded tool eg. Rubber/ wooden jimmy or simple pressure stick (fig. 132. 133, 134, 135 & 137). Patients suffering from dizziness especially when they get up in the morning should apply pressure on the outer and inner edges of thumbs of both hands for 1-2 minutes. Applying pressure on these reflex centres whenever a patient feels dizzy, 126 results in prompt relief. In this condition/ pressure should also be applied on reflex centres related to ear (fig. 73, 74, 75 & 76) as any problem with inner ear can also cause dizziness / vertigo. Other reflex centre related to shoulder, arms and neck is located just below the little ringer (fig. 136, pt. 1) on the heels and the palms. This reflex centre is also important for patients suffering from frozen shoulder, stiffness in the arms and paralysis. In addition, applying pressure on pt. 3 in fig. 136 also results in miraculous relief.

In all the disorders / diseases of the neck, there is pain in shoulder blades too. Reflex centre related to this part is located on the fatty mound just below the thumb (both hands and feet). The method of applying pressure is shown in fig. 138.

For cure from all the above mentioned diseases, apply pressure on all the channels on the hands and feet, especially channel 1, and on the fingers (fig. 120 & 139) with the help of a thumb.

There is a very important point related to pain in the elbow. This point is located on the outer surface of the palms and soles (pt. 2 in fig. 136). In addition apply pressure on the outer and inner surfaces of thumbs on hands and feet. Pressure should be applied on the fourth channel (fig. 139) on hands and feet. For treatment of tennis elbow, in addition to the above mentioned reflex points, apply pressure on reflex point on the elbow. It is located at point of extreme end of outer and inner crease of the elbow (fig. 140). Apply deep pressure with thumb for 5-7 seconds repeating it thrice. Secondary Reflex Centres In addition to the above mentioned centres, there are a few secondary reflex centres. In all disease conditions of the neck, pressure must be applied on at least a few of these points, if not all. Apply pressure on the back side of the neck and on the shoulder (fig. 141). First, apply pressure at the mid point on junction line of the head and the neck (medulla oblongata). This is the point where the vertebral column originates. Apply medium to light pressure on pt. 1, with the thumb of the hand for 3 seconds, thrice according to the patient's tolerance. Method of pressure application is shown in fig. 142. Later apply pressure on point 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7 for 3 seconds, thrice. 128 After this pressure is applied with both the thumbs on the back of the neck, at a distance of half an inch on either side of the vertebral column (pt. 1-12 in fig. 143). Pressure should be light. A person can do this step himself by putting both the hands back and using the thumbs or fingers of both the hands (fig. 144).

After giving pressure on the neck, pressure must be given on point 14 (fig. 142) which is the 7th cervical vertebra. Here, pressure is given with the thumb in the direction )f the neck. Later apply pressure on pt. 13 & 15 in the direction of the ear. This is a very effective reflex centre for the treatment of any problem of the arms. In these conditions, pressure should be applied on the outer surface of the neck and along the shoulder blades (fig. 145 & 146). If a patient suffers from vertigo / dizziness, then do lot apply pressure on the neck. Applying pressure on the principal reflex centres on lands and feet will suffice.

Applying pressure on the front and back of the forearms at the reflex centres as shown in fig. 147 will result in fast relief from pain in the shoulder and elbow, frozen shoulder and pain in wrist and thumb. Apply pressure at each point for 2 seconds. Apply pressure in the underarms with the thumb (fig. 148), along with pressure on reflex points on the shoulder, forearm and chest (fig. 149) for a few seconds. Pressure.

In conditions like pain and stiffness in the thumb, inability in writing with the thumb or numbness of the thumb, pressure should be applied on the wrist as well as the arm at a distance of 3 finger width from the first crease of the wrist. Applying pressure on these points with help in reducing the intensity of the pain. 130 A very important reflex centre related to writers cramp is present on the palm. To locate this point, close your fist and now the point on the palm, where the middle finger touches is the correct reflex point. Press this point for 1-2 minutes continuously with the thumb. There are a few reflex points on the lobe of the ear (fig. 18 ). If possible, pressure should be given by the thumb or finger. To reduce stiffness of the shoulders, pressure should be applied on the reflex centres of kidneys (fig. 10). Patients suffering from all the conditions described above should drink plenty of water during this therapy.

 -Pain in the Back, Legs, Buttocks and Heel
 Pain in back and leg
 Lumbago
 Slipped / prolapsed disc
 Pain in feet and heel
 Foot drop
 Cramp in calf

 -Reflexology Treatment
Principal Reflex Centres Related to Back and Legs Reflex centres related to lower back, waist, buttocks / hips, legs, feet, heel pain and prolapsed disc are located on feet, on channel 1, 2, 3 and along the heels. Points on channel 1 shown in figure are specific to the lumbar 4,5 and sacral 1. 131 Applying pressure on these points helps in speedy recovery. Apply pressure on the reflex points shown in fig. 154, the points which are more sensitive are the principal reflex centres for the disease. It is better that you apply pressure on all the reflex centres irrespective of the fact that they are tender or not. These are the main reflex centres for sciatica.

The method by which pressure is applied on the reflex centres of lumbar, sacral and coccygeal region is shown in fig. 156 & 157. Pressure can be applied either by the thumb or by using any smooth round tool eg. Jimmy. Applying pressure in the mid of the ankle helps in relieving pain in the legs and sciatica. Other centres are located on the hands and as well as the palms (lower part) as shown in fig. 158 & 159.

Other reflex centres are located on the back especially the lower back, on either side of the backbone, above the buttocks, on the buttocks and on the back of the legs (fig. 155). If a patient complains of pain on applying pressure on these points, do not include them in the treatment. Just give pressure on the hands and feet. This might delay the treatment by 4-5 days. For relief from pain in the legs, sciatica, heels, feet and foot drop, apply pressure on the area behind the knee and on the calves. The method of pressure application is shown in fig. 160 & 161.

To give pressure on the back, make the patient lie down on his stomach on a hard surface like floor or firm bed. Start by pressing the middle of the crease of the buttock with the help of both the thumbs for 3 seconds. Apply deep pressure 3 times. Then apply pressure on the mid point between the buttocks and knees, and then apply pressure on the middle of the back side of the knee. Pressure should be in accordance to the patient's tolerance. Later apply pressure thrice on the mid point on the lower legs. Repeat the same procedure on the other leg the same way. After giving pressure on the legs, apply pressure on the lower back on the lumbar, sacral and coccygeal parts a little away from the spine with the help of thumbs. Apply pressure at 133 each point three times. A very important point is located just below the ankle (fig. 162). Applying pressure on this point with the thumb or finger results in instant relief from pain. This point is very sensitive, therefore care should be taken that the pressure given is light and according to patient's tolerance. It is better to give pressure all along the ankle (fig. 163).

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